Punjab, state of India, located in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. It is bounded by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest and by the country of Pakistan to the west. Punjab in its present form came into existence on November 1, 1966, when most of its predominantly Hindi-speaking areas were separated to form the new state of Haryana. The city of Chandigarh, within the Chandigarh union territory, is the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.
The word Punjab is a compound of two Persian words, panj (“five”) and āb (“water”), thus signifying the land of five waters, or rivers (the Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, and Sutlej). The word’s origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for “five rivers” and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata. As applied to the present Indian state of Punjab, however, it is a misnomer: since the partition of India in 1947, only two of those rivers, the Sutlej and the Beas, lie within Punjab’s territory, while the Ravi flows only along part of its western border. Area 19,445 square miles (50,362 square km). Pop. (2011) 27,704,236.
Relief, drainage, and soils
Punjab spans three physiographic regions, the smallest being the Siwalik Range in the northeast, where elevations reach about 3,000 feet (900 metres). Farther south, the narrow, undulating foothill region is dissected by closely spaced seasonal torrents, locally known as chos, several of which terminate in the plain below without joining any stream. To the south and west of the foothills lies the broad flat tract, with low-lying floodplains separated by slightly elevated uplands. This region, with its fertile alluvial soils, slopes gently from an elevation of about 900 feet (275 metres) in the northeast to about 550 feet (170 metres) in the southwest. The southwestern part of the plains, formerly strewn with sand dunes, has mostly been levelled off with the expansion of irrigation projects.
Punjab has an inland subtropical location, and its climate is continental, being semiarid to subhumid. Summers are very hot. In June, the warmest month, daily temperatures in Ludhiana usually reach about 100 °F (upper 30s C) from a low in the upper 70s F (mid-20s C). In January, the coolest month, daily temperatures normally rise from the mid-40s (about 7 °C) into the mid-60s F (upper 10s C). Annual rainfall is highest in the Siwalik Range, which may receive more than 45 inches (1,150 mm), and lowest in the southwest, which may receive less than 12 inches (300 mm); statewide average annual precipitation is roughly 16 inches (400 mm). Most of the annual rainfall occurs from July to September, the months of the southwest monsoon. Winter rains from the western cyclones, occurring from December to March, account for less than one-fourth of the total rainfall.
Plant and animal life
With the growth of human settlement over the centuries, Punjab has been cleared of most of its forest cover. Over large parts of the Siwalik Range, bush vegetation has succeeded trees as a result of extensive deforestation. There have been attempts at reforestation on the hillsides, and eucalyptus trees have been planted along major roads.
Natural habitats for wildlife are severely limited because of intense competition from agriculture. Even so, many types of rodents (such as mice, rats, squirrels, and gerbils), bats, birds, and snakes, as well as some species of monkeys, have adapted to the farming environment. Larger mammals, including jackals, leopards, wild boar, various types of deer, civets, and pangolins (scaly anteaters), among others, are found in the Siwaliks.
The people of Punjab are mainly descendants of the so-called Aryan tribes that entered India from the northwest during the 2nd millennium bce, as well as the pre-Aryan population, probably Dravidians (speakers of Dravidian languages), who had a highly developed civilization. Relics of this civilization have been unearthed at Rupnagar (Ropar). Successive waves of invaders—Greeks, Parthians, Kushans, and Hephthalites (Hunas)—added to the diversity of earlier social, or caste, groups (jatis). Later, invaders under the banner of Islam forced several vanquished groups (such as the Jat peasant caste and the Rajput class of landowners) to convert to the Muslim faith, although many conversions were voluntary under the influence of Sufi saints.
Today, however, the majority religion of Punjab is Sikhism, which originated from the teachings of Nanak, the first Sikh Guru. Hindus make up the largest minority, but there also is a significant population of Muslims. There are small communities of Christians and Jains in some areas. Some two-fifths of Punjab’s population consists of Hindus and Sikhs who officially belong to the Scheduled Castes (formerly called “untouchables”), which occupy a relatively low position within the traditional Indian caste system.
Punjabi is the official state language. Along with Hindi, it is the most widely spoken. However, many people also speak English and Urdu.
About one-third of Punjab’s population lives in cities and towns. Its major cities are Ludhiana in the central region, Amritsar in the northwest, Jalandhar in north-central Punjab, Patiala in the southeast, and Bathinda in the south-central part of the state. Muslims reside mostly in and around the southwest-central city of Maler Kotla, which was once the centre of a princely state ruled by a Muslim nawab (provincial governor).
Some two-fifths of Punjab’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector, which accounts for a significant segment of the state’s gross product. Punjab produces an important portion of India’s food grain and contributes a major share of the wheat and rice stock held by the Central Pool (a national repository system of surplus food grain). Much of the state’s agricultural progress and productivity is attributable to the so-called Green Revolution, an international movement launched in the 1960s that introduced not only new agricultural technologies but also high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.
Aside from wheat and rice, corn (maize), barley, and pearl millet are important cereal products of Punjab. Although the yield of pulses (legumes) has declined since the late 20th century, there has been a rapid increase in the commercial production of fruit, especially citrus, mangoes, and guavas. Other major crops include cotton, sugarcane, oilseeds, chickpeas, peanuts (groundnuts), and vegetables.
With almost the entire cultivated area receiving irrigation, Punjab is among India’s most widely irrigated states. Government-owned canals and wells are the main sources of irrigation; canals are most common in southern and southwestern Punjab, while wells are more typical of the north and the northeast. The Bhakra Dam project in neighbouring Himachal Pradesh provides much of Punjab’s supply of irrigation water.
Resources and power
Lacking fossil fuels, Punjab draws its energy primarily from thermal plants fired with imported coal. However, a significant amount of power is provided by hydroelectric plants and, to a lesser extent, by solar power stations. In the early 21st century the demand for electricity in Punjab continued to exceed the supply.
The manufacturing sector (including construction) has expanded notably since the late 20th century. Industries with the largest number of workers include those producing silk, wool, and other textiles; processed foods and beverages; metal products and machinery; transport equipment; and furniture. Other important manufactures include leather goods, chemicals, rubber and plastics, and hosiery.
Punjab’s services sector includes trade, transportation and storage, financial services, real estate, public administration, and other services. The sector has grown rapidly since the late 20th century. By the early 21st century it had become the largest component of Punjab’s economy.
Punjab has one of the best-developed road networks in the country. All-weather paved roads extend to most villages, and the state is crossed by a number of national highways. Punjab also is well served by the Northern Railway—part of the national railway system. There is an international airport in Amritsar, and regular domestic service is available in Chandigarh and Ludhiana. Several other airports offer cargo service.
Government and society
The structure of Punjab’s government, like that of most other states of India, is determined by the national constitution of 1950. The state is led by a governor, who is appointed by the president of India. The governor is aided and advised by a Council of Ministers, which is led by a chief minister and responsible to the unicameral Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha).
At the head of the judiciary is the High Court, which is located in Chandigarh and is shared with the state of Haryana. Appeals from the High Court are directed to the Supreme Court of India. Below the High Court are district-level courts.
The state is divided into more than a dozen districts, which are grouped into several revenue divisions. Each district is headed by a deputy commissioner. The districts are parceled further into a number of tehsils, or subdivisions. Lower administrative and revenue units include circles, blocks, and villages, as well as police districts and police stations.
Health and welfare
Punjab enjoys better health conditions than most states in India. Hospitals attached to medical colleges, district- and tehsil-level medical facilities, health care centres in rural areas, and numerous dispensaries constitute a widespread health care network.
Numerous social services are provided by government and voluntary organizations. The government provides pensions for the elderly and operates a network of employment exchanges to assist the unemployed. The state also has schemes to aid those from traditionally disadvantaged social groups through scholarships, employment services, and assorted loans and grants for business activities.
In addition to the government, private organizations have played a significant role in the extension of education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels throughout the state. Education is compulsory and free for pupils aged 6 to 11. Secondary education is also free in state schools. Broadcasting has been especially important in the dissemination of vocational and cultural education throughout the state.
Punjab has several state universities, including Punjabi University (1962) in Patiala, Guru Nanak Dev University (1969) in Amritsar, Panjab University (1956) in Chandigarh, Punjab Agricultural University (1962) in Ludhiana, Punjab Technical University (1997) in Jalandhar, and Baba Farid University of Health Sciences (1998) in Faridkot. In addition, there are more than 200 specialized colleges and technical institutions.
Ballads of love and war, fairs and festivals, dancing, music, and Punjabi literature are among the characteristic expressions of the state’s cultural life. The origins of Punjabi literature trace to the mystical and religious verse of the 13th-century Sufi (mystic) Shaikh Farīd and to the 15th–16th-century founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak; those figures were the first to use Punjabi extensively as a medium of poetic expression. The works of Sufi poet Waris Shah greatly enriched Punjabi literature in the second half of the 18th century. Contemporary in the 20th and early 21st centuries Punjabi literature found some of its greatest exponents in poet and author Bhai Vir Singh and the poets Puran Singh, Dhani Ram Chatrik, Mohan Singh “Mahir,” and Shiv Kumar Batalvi; renowned novelists included Jaswant Singh Kanwal, Gurdial Singh, Giani Gurdit Singh, and Sohan Singh Shital, among others. Kulwant Singh Virk is one of the best-known writers of short stories in Punjabi.
Punjab holds numerous religious and seasonal festivals, such as Dussehra, a Hindu festival celebrating the victory of Prince Rama over the demon king Ravana, as recounted in the epic Ramayana; Diwali, a festival of lights celebrated by both Hindus and Sikhs; and Baisakhi, which for Hindus is a new year’s festival and for Sikhs is both an agricultural festival and a celebration of the birth of the community’s Khalsa order. There also are numerous anniversary celebrations in honour of the Gurus (the 10 historical leaders of Sikhism) and various saints. Dancing is a typical feature of such festivities, with bhangra, jhumar, and sammi among the most popular genres. Giddha, a native Punjabi tradition, is a humorous song-and-dance genre performed by women. In addition to Sikh religious music, semiclassical Mughal forms, such as the khyal dance and the ṭhumrī, ghazal, and qawwālī vocal performance genres, continue to be popular.
The state’s outstanding architectural monument is the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) at Amritsar, which blends Indian and Muslim styles. Its chief motifs, such as the dome and the geometric design, are repeated in most of the Sikh places of worship. The Harmandir Sahib is rich in gold filigree work, panels with floral designs, and marble facings inlaid with coloured stones. Other important buildings include the Martyr’s Memorial at Jallianwalla Bagh (a park in Amritsar), the Hindu Temple of Durgiana (also in Amritsar), the so-called Moorish Mosque in Kapurthala (patterned after a Moroccan model), and the old forts of Bathinda and Bahadurgarh.
The foundations of the present Punjab were laid by Banda Singh Bahadur, a hermit who became a military leader and, with his fighting band of Sikhs, temporarily liberated the eastern part of the province from Mughal rule in 1709–10. Banda Singh’s defeat and execution in 1716 were followed by a prolonged struggle between the Sikhs on one side and the Mughals and Afghans on the other. By 1764–65 the Sikhs had established their dominance in the area. Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) subsequently built up the Punjab region into a powerful Sikh kingdom and attached to it the adjacent provinces of Multan, Kashmir, and Peshawar (all of which are now fully or partially administered by Pakistan).
In 1849 the Punjab kingdom fell to the troops of the British East India Company and subsequently became a province under British rule. By the late 19th century, however, the Indian nationalist movement took hold in the province. One of the most significant events associated with the movement was the 1919 Massacre of Amritsar, which resulted from an order given by the British general Reginald Edward Harry Dyer to fire on a group of some 10,000 Indians who had convened to protest new antisubversion regulations enacted by the British administration; according to one report, nearly 400 died and about 1,200 were injured in the conflict. When India gained its independence in 1947, the British province of Punjab was split between the new sovereign states of India and Pakistan, and the smaller, eastern portion became part of India.
After independence, the history of the Indian Punjab was dominated by Sikh agitation for a separate Punjabi-speaking state, led by Tara Singh and later by his political successor, Sant Fateh Singh. In November 1956, however, rather than being divided along linguistic lines, the Indian state of Punjab was enlarged through incorporation of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), an amalgamation of the preindependence princely territories of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Kalsia, Malerkotla (Maler Kotla), and Nalagarh. Political and administrative leadership for the enlarged Punjab was provided by Sardar Partap Singh Kairon, chief minister of the state from 1956 to 1964. The call for a separate Indian state containing the predominantly Punjabi-speaking areas intensified in the wake of Punjab’s expansion. Eventually, the government of India met the demand. On November 1, 1966, Punjab was divided on the basis of language into the mostly Hindi-speaking state of Haryana and the new, primarily Punjabi-speaking state of Punjab; meanwhile, the northernmost districts were transferred to Himachal Pradesh, and the newly constructed city of Chandigarh and its immediate surroundings became a separate union territory. Though not a part of either state, the city of Chandigarh was retained as the joint administrative headquarters, or capital, of both Haryana and Punjab.
Although Sikhs had won the use of Punjabi within the state, by the 1980s militant factions of the Shiromani Akali Dal (Supreme Akali Party) and the All India Sikh Students’ Federation were demanding the establishment of an autonomous Sikh homeland, or Khalistan (“Land of the Pure,” a term introduced as early as 1946 by Tara Singh). In order to attain their goal, those groups began to use terrorism, including the indiscriminate killing of Punjabi Hindus and even those Sikhs who opposed the creation of Khalistan. In June 1984, in an effort to dislodge Sikh militants fortified in the Harmandir Sahib, or Golden Temple (the Sikhs’ holiest shrine), the Indian army carried out an attack. The Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and most of his armed followers were killed, as were at least 100 Indian soldiers. In retaliation, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated at her Delhi home by two of her Sikh bodyguards, which in turn led to violence against Sikhs in Delhi and elsewhere. A climate of violence and disorder persisted in Punjab through the 1980s, but by the early 1990s the state had returned to relative stability. The general peace there continued into the early 21st century, helped by the naming of Manmohan Singh, a Sikh, as the prime minister of India in 2004.H.K. Manmohan SinghSurinder M. Bhardwaj
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MAHAVIR JAYANTHIBoth the Digambara and the Shwetambara Jains observe the birthday of Lord Mahavir, the Jain Teerthankar, on 13th day of the bright half of the Chaithra month as Mahavir Jayanthi. (March- April).
Though it is celebrated by Jains throughout the country, it is celebrated with great style and fervor in Rajasthan and Gujarat where the Jains are settled in large numbers. On this day Jain pilgrims from all over the country congregate at the ancient Jain shrines at Girnar and Palitana in Gujarat and at Mahavirji in Rajasthan, and Pawapuri, Vaishali in Bihar. Vaishali being the birthplace of Lord Mahavir, a grand festival is held here and it is known as Vaishali Mahotsava.
On this auspicious and holy day, grand chariot processions with the images of Mahavir are taken out. Rich ceremonies are held in the temples and fast and charities to the poor and the needy are done. On this day the Jain scriptures are devotedly read and in some places big fairs are held.
HANUMAN JAYANTHILord Hanuman is known to give quick solutions to problems. He is also known as Sankat Mochan or the remover of distress and affliction. There is hardly any place in North India where there is no temple for the Lord Hanuman. So, his birthday is celebrated with great devotion. On chaithra Shukla Purnima- full moon day, generally falling between 15th March and 15th April, Hanuman Jayanthi is celebrated all over the country.
Lord Vishnu came in the form of a beautiful Lady to deviate the demons and let the gods have the Amrita. Lord Shankar was so much attracted to the Lady that he chased her and prematurely ejaculated. The sages and seers did not want to waste the seed of shankar that they collected it and implanted it in the womb of Anjani and thus Lord Hanuman was born.
The birth anniversary of Hanuman is celebrated with great devotion. Devotees visit Hanuman shrines, observe fasts, offer prayers and puja and read the Ramayana. On this day the idols of Hanuman are given a special coating of vermilion mixed with clarified butter. People offer "besan Ladoo" or "Boondi" as prasad and chant various hymns eulogizing his glory.
GANAGAURPrimarily a women's festival, Ganagur is celebrated on the third day of the bright half of Chaithra (March-April). It is a local festival in Rajasthan and is also celebrated in many parts of northern India with great fervor. Ganagaur is actively an 18-day festival culminating on the final day. The celebrations commence right from the next day of Holi with the worship and prayers to Gauri. Gauri is an epithet of Parvati, the eternal spouse of Lord Shiva.
Both the married and the unmarried girls worship the Goddess everyday during the festival with durva grass, fruits and bright glass pots filled with fresh water. The married woman seeks the blessings for faithful conjugal happiness and bliss while the virgins pray for a suitable handsome husband and future marital prosperity.
On the final day of Ganagaur festival, the ladies keep strict fast, worship the Goddess, wear colorful raiment and ornaments, exchange sweets and the earthen or wooden images of Ganagaur (Shiva- Parvathi) are taken out in processions through the main streets to the accompaniment of music for the immersion of the idols in the nearby lake. Normally Ganagaur is celebrated at the daybreak.
Madurai Meenakshi Temple
The wedding anniversary is called as Meenakshi Kalyanam, which is the most spectacular festival of Madurai. According to the legends, Indra set out on a pilgrimage to atone for the misdeeds he has done unknowingly. During his pilgrimage when he came near Madurai, he felt that the burden has lightened and he found a Shiv Linga lying there. He immediately built a beautiful temple there and installed the lingam there.
Then he desired to perform a puja and so Lord Shiva caused a Golden lotus to appear in the nearby pool, and that day happened to be a chaithrapoornima. The golden lotus lake is still inside the temple premises.
RAM NAVAMIRam Navami, the birthday of Lord Rama is a major Hindu festival celebrated all over the country by all sects of the Hindu fold. Ram, the seventh incarnation of Lord Vishnu was born on the ninth day of the bright half of the lunar month chaitra.
The festival preparations start early in the morning with people taking bath in the holy waters and coming to the temple of Lord Ram. They keep fast till 12, noon, when the avatar is supposed to have taken place. People take "Phalagar" only in the afternoon. It consists of a sweet made of khoya, potatoes or calacosia made in any form without the use of Haldi, garlic and onion. All kinds of root vegetables are consumed and no green vegetables. Fruits are allowed. The puja is done in the noon by singing various slokas, hymns and ending with the distribution of Panjeeree, chranamrita, fruits and sweets.
In Ayodhya, the birthplace of Sri Ram, the temples are heavily decorated and great festivities take place. Ramayana is read and recited and great fairs are held here on that day. Ran Navami is also celebrated as the Vasanta Navarathri festival with the celebrations starting from the first lunar day of the bright half of the chithrai month.
This harvest festival of Baisakhi is celebrated with the joy being expressed by the famous Bhangra dance. It is very important for the Sikhs, Buddhists and Hindus alike and is marked by the ritual bathing at Haridwar.
It falls on the 14th April and marks the beginning of the solar year for the north Indians, and it is called so because after this day, the month Baiskhi starts. But when an extra month is added to the year, this festival falls on the month of Baiskhi.During this festival the clime is very enjoyable and also the farmers have sufficient amount of money in their hands for the celebrations, since the harvests are over and the produce sold.
In the morning of Baisakhi, people take bath at rivers and tanks. Then dressed in new attires they go the Gurdwaras. There they give thanks for the good yield and pray for a similar result, the coming year. The day is considered very auspicious and big cattle fairs are conducted in many village grounds. Giant wheels and merry-go-rounds dot almost all the villages.
It was on this day that Guru Gobind Singh initiated the "Panch Piyara" or the five loved ones. He decorated the Khalsa at Anandpur sahib near Chandigarh and gave five people from five different states the rules on how to be like a true Sikh. One of the sacred places for the Sikhs is the Amritsar, Golden Temple. It has a huge tank in it and there is popular belief that anyone bathing in it gets purified of all his sins. On Baisakhi day, water is brought from all the sacred rivers of India and poured into that tank.
Lots of fruits like ber and lookat and mithai are sent to the houses of the daughters and sisters as gifts. Visitors are given lassi and mithai and many other festive foods.
BUDDHA PURNIMAThis is the most sacred day for the Buddhists all over the country. This full- moon day of the month of Vaisakh (April- May) has special significance, because on this day the Great Buddha was born, attained enlightenment and attained Nirvana or death. This strange, three-fold coincidence, gives Buddha Purnima its unique significance.
On the full moon day of Vaisakh the Buddha's mother, Queen Mahamaya, happened to be on her way from Kapilavastu to her parents home in Devdaha. During the journey itself she gave birth to her son under the shade of two Sal trees. And then this Gautama grew up but he was nor attached to worldly pleasures and sought a way out. Then on another full moon night of Vaisakh, on his thirty-fifth birthday he attained enlightenment.
On this day, the Buddhist people take bath and wear white clothes and visit the viharas and give alms to the monks there. Then they attend discourses on the life and teachings of the Buddha from the Buddhist monks there. On this day they refrain from eating meat. Their special forms of charity include kindness to animals; many of them buy caged birds and let them free. They make "Vaisakh Valkats" out of bamboo and decorate their houses with them. To the Buddhists it is not a day of great rejoicing but of deep reflections on the travails of human life in particular, because Buddha was the first to find a solution to the great causes of human grief.
NRIJALA EKADASHIEkadashi is believed to be the most pious day in a month in general for the devout Hindu. It comes twice in a month according to the Hindu calendar. It falls on the eleventh day of the waxing of the moon and again on the eleventh day of the waning of the moon. The observance of the rituals connected with this day are said to wipe away the sins that may have been done in the past fortnight. The very religious observe a fast on both the Ekadashis. The regulations for the fasts are nor very strict. Fruits, milks, sweets, tea and coffee can be taken along with water and a full meal can be taken in the night.
"Nirjala Ekadashi" comes in the Hindu month of Jyeshta, the 11th day of "Sukul Paksh" and comes sometimes in the month of June. The origin behind this festival goes like this; Bhim, the son of Kunti, was a great Gourmet. He hated the idea of fasting on every Ekadashi. So his mentors felt that atleast he should absolve of his sins and that it should be a total "Vrat".
In the morning of this day people get up early, take bath and wear ordinary clothes and perform puja. It is not a festive occasion but a sober one, where one is supposed to think of the humble and the poor. Everyone does the puja with water first and then with aipun and roli and lastly with rice, worshipping Ganesh and the appropriate deities.