Essay Papers On Anthrax

Anthrax Essay

874 Words4 Pages

Anthrax Vaccine: Safe and Effective, or Not?

Intro: The Anthrax vaccine is a mandatory shot for military; while some people are willing to take the shot to save their lives, others believe if they take it, it will ruin theirs.

I. The Anthrax Disease
     A. Anthrax is a bacterial infection caused by Bacillus Anthracis.
          1. It primarily affects livestock, but can occasionally spread humans.
               a. The infection can be treated, but is almost always fatal.
          2. The bacterium produces spores that lay dormant for…show more content…

The vaccine is used for people that are at risk for exposure to the                anthrax spores.
          3. The vaccine helps your immune system prevent the bacteria from                growing and leading the death
     B. The immunization consists of 6 shots. 3 are given two weeks apart and the      other 3 are given at 6, 12, and 18 months.
          1. There is also a booster shot that can be taken to keep the vaccine up to                date in one year intervals.
Transition: Now that we have some of the basic information on the disease and vaccine, lets look at the pros and cons of it.

III. Why you should take the vaccine.
     A. The main argument for taking the vaccine is that anthrax kills, and the vaccine      protects.
          1. Right now there are at least ten countries in Southeast Asia and Korea                with biological weapons.
          2. Anthrax

Show More

Garrett, Kimberly (2017) The effect of climate change on risk of anthrax infection in the Kobuk Valley, Alaska. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

This is the latest version of this item.

Microsoft Word
Submitted Version
Available under License : See the attached license file.
Download (524kB)
Plain Text (licence)
Available under License : See the attached license file.
Download (1kB)


Because of rising global temperatures, erosion, and anthropogenic environmental degradation, permafrost in the Arctic is melting. B. anthracis spores preserved in the frozen ground can be rendered active upon thaw. This melt and release is responsible for an environmentally-mediated anthrax outbreak in northern Siberia in 2016, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of reindeer and the hospitalization of 90 people. Re-emergent anthrax has the potential to impact communities across the Arctic, especially indigenous peoples and those who practice subsistence hunting. An environmental anthrax outbreak poses a significant threat to public health, as it directly infects humans and depletes the resources they use for food, shelter, and income. Risk of an environmental anthrax outbreak was assessed for the Kobuk Valley, Alaska, which possesses multiple risk factors for such an event, including its geologic profile, agricultural history, wildlife dynamics, and vulnerability to climate change. These factors are examined in detail in order to assess the risk of an anthrax outbreak in the Kobuk Valley. The risk of an immediate outbreak is currently low. However, the progression of climate change will modify contributing factors and increase risk over time. Thus, preventative surveillance and outbreak response preparation are essential for the Kobuk Valley and similar Arctic regions.


Social Networking:



Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairPearce, Lindalip10@pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:27 April 2017
Date Type:Submission
Submission Date:31 March 2017
Access Restriction:No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Publisher:University of Pittsburgh
Institution:University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs:Graduate School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Degree:MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type:Master Essay
Uncontrolled Keywords:anthrax, public, health, climate, change, environmental, health, permafrost
Date Deposited:18 Jul 2017 17:54
Last Modified:21 Sep 2017 20:56

Available Versions of this Item

  • The effect of climate change on risk of anthrax infection in the Kobuk Valley, Alaska. (deposited 18 Jul 2017 17:54)[Currently Displayed]


Monthly Views for the past 3 years

Plum Analytics

Actions (login required)

View Item

One thought on “Essay Papers On Anthrax

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *