Replace With Single Assignment C# Employee

The C# switch statement allows you to choose from many statements based on multiple selections by passing control to one of the case statements within its body. The switch statement executes the case corresponding to the value of the expression . The switch statement can include any number of case instances.

Related Topics:

If..Else statement , Enum Switch..Case , String to DateTime , Character Encoding , Autocomplete TextBox , Exception Vs Error switch (expression) { case expression: //your code here jump-statement default: //your code here jump-statement }
expression : An integral or string type expression.

jump-statement : A jump statement that transfers control out of the case body.

String Switch

The C# language allows you to switch on a string variable. The switch statement compares the String objects in its expression with the expressions associated with each case label as if it were using the String.equals method. Currently the switch statement is case-sensitive. It would be nice to be able to specify the StringComparison to use for switching on strings. String in switch case make code more readable by removing the multiple if-else-if chained conditions.

If any of the expression passed to switch case does not match with case statement the control will go to default: statement . If there is no default: statement control will go outside of the switch statement. The following C# program shows how to int values work with Switch..Case statement.

C# - Quick Guide


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C# - Overview

C# is a modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft and approved by European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) and International Standards Organization (ISO).

C# was developed by Anders Hejlsberg and his team during the development of .Net Framework.

C# is designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), which consists of the executable code and runtime environment that allows use of various high-level languages on different computer platforms and architectures.

The following reasons make C# a widely used professional language −

  • It is a modern, general-purpose programming language
  • It is object oriented.
  • It is component oriented.
  • It is easy to learn.
  • It is a structured language.
  • It produces efficient programs.
  • It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms.
  • It is a part of .Net Framework.

Strong Programming Features of C#

Although C# constructs closely follow traditional high-level languages, C and C++ and being an object-oriented programming language. It has strong resemblance with Java, it has numerous strong programming features that make it endearing to a number of programmers worldwide.

Following is the list of few important features of C# −

  • Boolean Conditions
  • Automatic Garbage Collection
  • Standard Library
  • Assembly Versioning
  • Properties and Events
  • Delegates and Events Management
  • Easy-to-use Generics
  • Indexers
  • Conditional Compilation
  • Simple Multithreading
  • LINQ and Lambda Expressions
  • Integration with Windows

C# - Environment

In this chapter, we will discuss the tools required for creating C# programming. We have already mentioned that C# is part of .Net framework and is used for writing .Net applications. Therefore, before discussing the available tools for running a C# program, let us understand how C# relates to the .Net framework.

The .Net Framework

The .Net framework is a revolutionary platform that helps you to write the following types of applications −

  • Windows applications
  • Web applications
  • Web services

The .Net framework applications are multi-platform applications. The framework has been designed in such a way that it can be used from any of the following languages: C#, C++, Visual Basic, Jscript, COBOL, etc. All these languages can access the framework as well as communicate with each other.

The .Net framework consists of an enormous library of codes used by the client languages such as C#. Following are some of the components of the .Net framework −

  • Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  • The .Net Framework Class Library
  • Common Language Specification
  • Common Type System
  • Metadata and Assemblies
  • Windows Forms
  • ASP.Net and ASP.Net AJAX
  • ADO.Net
  • Windows Workflow Foundation (WF)
  • Windows Presentation Foundation
  • Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)
  • LINQ

For the jobs each of these components perform, please see ASP.Net - Introduction, and for details of each component, please consult Microsoft's documentation.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for C#

Microsoft provides the following development tools for C# programming −

  • Visual Studio 2010 (VS)
  • Visual C# 2010 Express (VCE)
  • Visual Web Developer

The last two are freely available from Microsoft official website. Using these tools, you can write all kinds of C# programs from simple command-line applications to more complex applications. You can also write C# source code files using a basic text editor, like Notepad, and compile the code into assemblies using the command-line compiler, which is again a part of the .NET Framework.

Visual C# Express and Visual Web Developer Express edition are trimmed down versions of Visual Studio and has the same appearance. They retain most features of Visual Studio. In this tutorial, we have used Visual C# 2010 Express.

You can download it from Microsoft Visual Studio. It gets installed automatically on your machine.

Note: You need an active internet connection for installing the express edition.

Writing C# Programs on Linux or Mac OS

Although the.NET Framework runs on the Windows operating system, there are some alternative versions that work on other operating systems. Mono is an open-source version of the .NET Framework which includes a C# compiler and runs on several operating systems, including various flavors of Linux and Mac OS. Kindly check Go Mono.

The stated purpose of Mono is not only to be able to run Microsoft .NET applications cross-platform, but also to bring better development tools for Linux developers. Mono can be run on many operating systems including Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, OS X, Windows, Solaris, and UNIX.

C# - Program Structure

Before we study basic building blocks of the C# programming language, let us look at a bare minimum C# program structure so that we can take it as a reference in upcoming chapters.

Creating Hello World Program

A C# program consists of the following parts −

  • Namespace declaration
  • A class
  • Class methods
  • Class attributes
  • A Main method
  • Statements and Expressions
  • Comments

Let us look at a simple code that prints the words "Hello World" −

Live Demo using System; namespace HelloWorldApplication { class HelloWorld { static void Main(string[] args) { /* my first program in C# */ Console.WriteLine("Hello World"); Console.ReadKey(); } } }

When this code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Hello World

Let us look at the various parts of the given program −

  • The first line of the program using System; - the using keyword is used to include the System namespace in the program. A program generally has multiple using statements.

  • The next line has the namespace declaration. A namespace is a collection of classes. The HelloWorldApplication namespace contains the class HelloWorld.

  • The next line has a class declaration, the class HelloWorld contains the data and method definitions that your program uses. Classes generally contain multiple methods. Methods define the behavior of the class. However, the HelloWorld class has only one method Main.

  • The next line defines the Main method, which is the entry point for all C# programs. The Main method states what the class does when executed.

  • The next line /*...*/ is ignored by the compiler and it is put to add comments in the program.

  • The Main method specifies its behavior with the statement Console.WriteLine("Hello World");

    WriteLine is a method of the Console class defined in the System namespace. This statement causes the message "Hello, World!" to be displayed on the screen.

  • The last line Console.ReadKey(); is for the VS.NET Users. This makes the program wait for a key press and it prevents the screen from running and closing quickly when the program is launched from Visual Studio .NET.

It is worth to note the following points −

  • C# is case sensitive.

  • All statements and expression must end with a semicolon (;).

  • The program execution starts at the Main method.

  • Unlike Java, program file name could be different from the class name.

Compiling and Executing the Program

If you are using Visual Studio.Net for compiling and executing C# programs, take the following steps −

  • Start Visual Studio.

  • On the menu bar, choose File -> New -> Project.

  • Choose Visual C# from templates, and then choose Windows.

  • Choose Console Application.

  • Specify a name for your project and click OK button.

  • This creates a new project in Solution Explorer.

  • Write code in the Code Editor.

  • Click the Run button or press F5 key to execute the project. A Command Prompt window appears that contains the line Hello World.

You can compile a C# program by using the command-line instead of the Visual Studio IDE −

  • Open a text editor and add the above-mentioned code.

  • Save the file as helloworld.cs

  • Open the command prompt tool and go to the directory where you saved the file.

  • Type csc helloworld.cs and press enter to compile your code.

  • If there are no errors in your code, the command prompt takes you to the next line and generates helloworld.exe executable file.

  • Type helloworld to execute your program.

  • You can see the output Hello World printed on the screen.

C# - Basic Syntax

C# is an object-oriented programming language. In Object-Oriented Programming methodology, a program consists of various objects that interact with each other by means of actions. The actions that an object may take are called methods. Objects of the same kind are said to have the same type or, are said to be in the same class.

For example, let us consider a Rectangle object. It has attributes such as length and width. Depending upon the design, it may need ways for accepting the values of these attributes, calculating the area, and displaying details.

Let us look at implementation of a Rectangle class and discuss C# basic syntax −

Live Demo using System; namespace RectangleApplication { class Rectangle { // member variables double length; double width; public void Acceptdetails() { length = 4.5; width = 3.5; } public double GetArea() { return length * width; } public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Length: {0}", length); Console.WriteLine("Width: {0}", width); Console.WriteLine("Area: {0}", GetArea()); } } class ExecuteRectangle { static void Main(string[] args) { Rectangle r = new Rectangle(); r.Acceptdetails(); r.Display(); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Length: 4.5 Width: 3.5 Area: 15.75

The using Keyword

The first statement in any C# program is

using System;

The using keyword is used for including the namespaces in the program. A program can include multiple using statements.

The class Keyword

The class keyword is used for declaring a class.

Comments in C#

Comments are used for explaining code. Compilers ignore the comment entries. The multiline comments in C# programs start with /* and terminates with the characters */ as shown below −

/* This program demonstrates The basic syntax of C# programming Language */

Single-line comments are indicated by the '//' symbol. For example,

}//end class Rectangle

Member Variables

Variables are attributes or data members of a class, used for storing data. In the preceding program, the Rectangle class has two member variables named length and width.

Member Functions

Functions are set of statements that perform a specific task. The member functions of a class are declared within the class. Our sample class Rectangle contains three member functions: AcceptDetails, GetArea and Display.

Instantiating a Class

In the preceding program, the class ExecuteRectangle contains the Main() method and instantiates the Rectangle class.

Identifiers

An identifier is a name used to identify a class, variable, function, or any other user-defined item. The basic rules for naming classes in C# are as follows −

  • A name must begin with a letter that could be followed by a sequence of letters, digits (0 - 9) or underscore. The first character in an identifier cannot be a digit.

  • It must not contain any embedded space or symbol such as? - + ! @ # % ^ & * ( ) [ ] { } . ; : " ' / and \. However, an underscore ( _ ) can be used.

  • It should not be a C# keyword.

C# Keywords

Keywords are reserved words predefined to the C# compiler. These keywords cannot be used as identifiers. However, if you want to use these keywords as identifiers, you may prefix the keyword with the @ character.

In C#, some identifiers have special meaning in context of code, such as get and set are called contextual keywords.

The following table lists the reserved keywords and contextual keywords in C# −

Reserved Keywords
abstractasbaseboolbreakbytecase
catchcharcheckedclassconstcontinuedecimal
defaultdelegatedodoubleelseenumevent
explicitexternfalsefinallyfixedfloatfor
foreachgotoifimplicitinin (generic modifier)int
interfaceinternalislocklongnamespacenew
nullobjectoperatoroutout (generic modifier)overrideparams
privateprotectedpublicreadonlyrefreturnsbyte
sealedshortsizeofstackallocstaticstringstruct
switchthisthrowtruetrytypeofuint
ulonguncheckedunsafeushortusingvirtualvoid
volatilewhile
Contextual Keywords
addaliasascendingdescendingdynamicfromget
globalgroupintojoinletorderbypartial (type)
partial
(method)
removeselectset

C# - Data Types

The variables in C#, are categorized into the following types −

  • Value types
  • Reference types
  • Pointer types

Value Type

Value type variables can be assigned a value directly. They are derived from the class System.ValueType.

The value types directly contain data. Some examples are int, char, and float, which stores numbers, alphabets, and floating point numbers, respectively. When you declare an int type, the system allocates memory to store the value.

The following table lists the available value types in C# 2010 −

TypeRepresentsRangeDefault Value
boolBoolean valueTrue or FalseFalse
byte8-bit unsigned integer0 to 2550
char16-bit Unicode characterU +0000 to U +ffff'\0'
decimal128-bit precise decimal values with 28-29 significant digits(-7.9 x 1028 to 7.9 x 1028) / 100 to 28 0.0M
double64-bit double-precision floating point type(+/-)5.0 x 10-324 to (+/-)1.7 x 103080.0D
float32-bit single-precision floating point type-3.4 x 1038 to + 3.4 x 10380.0F
int32-bit signed integer type-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,6470
long64-bit signed integer type-9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 0L
sbyte8-bit signed integer type-128 to 1270
short16-bit signed integer type-32,768 to 32,7670
uint32-bit unsigned integer type0 to 4,294,967,2950
ulong64-bit unsigned integer type0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,6150
ushort16-bit unsigned integer type0 to 65,5350

To get the exact size of a type or a variable on a particular platform, you can use the sizeof method. The expression sizeof(type) yields the storage size of the object or type in bytes. Following is an example to get the size of int type on any machine −

Live Demo using System; namespace DataTypeApplication { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { Console.WriteLine("Size of int: {0}", sizeof(int)); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Size of int: 4

Reference Type

The reference types do not contain the actual data stored in a variable, but they contain a reference to the variables.

In other words, they refer to a memory location. Using multiple variables, the reference types can refer to a memory location. If the data in the memory location is changed by one of the variables, the other variable automatically reflects this change in value. Example of built-in reference types are: object, dynamic, and string.

Object Type

The Object Type is the ultimate base class for all data types in C# Common Type System (CTS). Object is an alias for System.Object class. The object types can be assigned values of any other types, value types, reference types, predefined or user-defined types. However, before assigning values, it needs type conversion.

When a value type is converted to object type, it is called boxing and on the other hand, when an object type is converted to a value type, it is called unboxing.

object obj; obj = 100; // this is boxing

Dynamic Type

You can store any type of value in the dynamic data type variable. Type checking for these types of variables takes place at run-time.

Syntax for declaring a dynamic type is −

dynamic <variable_name> = value;

For example,

dynamic d = 20;

Dynamic types are similar to object types except that type checking for object type variables takes place at compile time, whereas that for the dynamic type variables takes place at run time.

String Type

The String Type allows you to assign any string values to a variable. The string type is an alias for the System.String class. It is derived from object type. The value for a string type can be assigned using string literals in two forms: quoted and @quoted.

For example,

String str = "Tutorials Point";

A @quoted string literal looks as follows −

@"Tutorials Point";

The user-defined reference types are: class, interface, or delegate. We will discuss these types in later chapter.

Pointer Type

Pointer type variables store the memory address of another type. Pointers in C# have the same capabilities as the pointers in C or C++.

Syntax for declaring a pointer type is −

type* identifier;

For example,

char* cptr; int* iptr;

We will discuss pointer types in the chapter 'Unsafe Codes'.

C# - Type Conversion

Type conversion is converting one type of data to another type. It is also known as Type Casting. In C#, type casting has two forms −

  • Implicit type conversion − These conversions are performed by C# in a type-safe manner. For example, are conversions from smaller to larger integral types and conversions from derived classes to base classes.

  • Explicit type conversion − These conversions are done explicitly by users using the pre-defined functions. Explicit conversions require a cast operator.

The following example shows an explicit type conversion −

Live Demo using System; namespace TypeConversionApplication { class ExplicitConversion { static void Main(string[] args) { double d = 5673.74; int i; // cast double to int. i = (int)d; Console.WriteLine(i); Console.ReadKey(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

5673

C# Type Conversion Methods

C# provides the following built-in type conversion methods −

Sr.No.Methods & Description
1

ToBoolean

Converts a type to a Boolean value, where possible.

2

ToByte

Converts a type to a byte.

3

ToChar

Converts a type to a single Unicode character, where possible.

4

ToDateTime

Converts a type (integer or string type) to date-time structures.

5

ToDecimal

Converts a floating point or integer type to a decimal type.

6

ToDouble

Converts a type to a double type.

7

ToInt16

Converts a type to a 16-bit integer.

8

ToInt32

Converts a type to a 32-bit integer.

9

ToInt64

Converts a type to a 64-bit integer.

10

ToSbyte

Converts a type to a signed byte type.

11

ToSingle

Converts a type to a small floating point number.

12

ToString

Converts a type to a string.

13

ToType

Converts a type to a specified type.

14

ToUInt16

Converts a type to an unsigned int type.

15

ToUInt32

Converts a type to an unsigned long type.

16

ToUInt64

Converts a type to an unsigned big integer.

The following example converts various value types to string type −

Live Demo using System; namespace TypeConversionApplication { class StringConversion { static void Main(string[] args) { int i = 75; float f = 53.005f; double d = 2345.7652; bool b = true; Console.WriteLine(i.ToString()); Console.WriteLine(f.ToString()); Console.WriteLine(d.ToString()); Console.WriteLine(b.ToString()); Console.ReadKey(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

75 53.005 2345.7652 True

C# - Variables

A variable is nothing but a name given to a storage area that our programs can manipulate. Each variable in C# has a specific type, which determines the size and layout of the variable's memory the range of values that can be stored within that memory and the set of operations that can be applied to the variable.

The basic value types provided in C# can be categorized as −

TypeExample
Integral typessbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, and char
Floating point typesfloat and double
Decimal typesdecimal
Boolean typestrue or false values, as assigned
Nullable typesNullable data types

C# also allows defining other value types of variable such as enum and reference types of variables such as class, which we will cover in subsequent chapters.

Defining Variables

Syntax for variable definition in C# is −

<data_type> <variable_list>;

Here, data_type must be a valid C# data type including char, int, float, double, or any user-defined data type, and variable_list may consist of one or more identifier names separated by commas.

Some valid variable definitions are shown here −

int i, j, k; char c, ch; float f, salary; double d;

You can initialize a variable at the time of definition as −

int i = 100;

Initializing Variables

Variables are initialized (assigned a value) with an equal sign followed by a constant expression. The general form of initialization is −

variable_name = value;

Variables can be initialized in their declaration. The initializer consists of an equal sign followed by a constant expression as −

<data_type> <variable_name> = value;

Some examples are −

int d = 3, f = 5; /* initializing d and f. */ byte z = 22; /* initializes z. */ double pi = 3.14159; /* declares an approximation of pi. */ char x = 'x'; /* the variable x has the value 'x'. */

It is a good programming practice to initialize variables properly, otherwise sometimes program may produce unexpected result.

The following example uses various types of variables −

Live Demo using System; namespace VariableDefinition { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { short a; int b ; double c; /* actual initialization */ a = 10; b = 20; c = a + b; Console.WriteLine("a = {0}, b = {1}, c = {2}", a, b, c); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

a = 10, b = 20, c = 30

Accepting Values from User

The Console class in the System namespace provides a function ReadLine() for accepting input from the user and store it into a variable.

For example,

int num; num = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());

The function Convert.ToInt32() converts the data entered by the user to int data type, because Console.ReadLine() accepts the data in string format.

Lvalue and Rvalue Expressions in C#

There are two kinds of expressions in C# −

  • lvalue − An expression that is an lvalue may appear as either the left-hand or right-hand side of an assignment.

  • rvalue − An expression that is an rvalue may appear on the right- but not left-hand side of an assignment.

Variables are lvalues and hence they may appear on the left-hand side of an assignment. Numeric literals are rvalues and hence they may not be assigned and can not appear on the left-hand side. Following is a valid C# statement −

int g = 20;

But following is not a valid statement and would generate compile-time error −

10 = 20;

C# - Constants and Literals

The constants refer to fixed values that the program may not alter during its execution. These fixed values are also called literals. Constants can be of any of the basic data types like an integer constant, a floating constant, a character constant, or a string literal. There are also enumeration constants as well.

The constants are treated just like regular variables except that their values cannot be modified after their definition.

Integer Literals

An integer literal can be a decimal, or hexadecimal constant. A prefix specifies the base or radix: 0x or 0X for hexadecimal, and there is no prefix id for decimal.

An integer literal can also have a suffix that is a combination of U and L, for unsigned and long, respectively. The suffix can be uppercase or lowercase and can be in any order.

Here are some examples of integer literals −

212 /* Legal */ 215u /* Legal */ 0xFeeL /* Legal */

Following are other examples of various types of Integer literals −

85 /* decimal */ 0x4b /* hexadecimal */ 30 /* int */ 30u /* unsigned int */ 30l /* long */ 30ul /* unsigned long */

Floating-point Literals

A floating-point literal has an integer part, a decimal point, a fractional part, and an exponent part. You can represent floating point literals either in decimal form or exponential form.

Here are some examples of floating-point literals −

3.14159 /* Legal */ 314159E-5F /* Legal */ 510E /* Illegal: incomplete exponent */ 210f /* Illegal: no decimal or exponent */ .e55 /* Illegal: missing integer or fraction */

While representing in decimal form, you must include the decimal point, the exponent, or both; and while representing using exponential form you must include the integer part, the fractional part, or both. The signed exponent is introduced by e or E.

Character Constants

Character literals are enclosed in single quotes. For example, 'x' and can be stored in a simple variable of char type. A character literal can be a plain character (such as 'x'), an escape sequence (such as '\t'), or a universal character (such as '\u02C0').

There are certain characters in C# when they are preceded by a backslash. They have special meaning and they are used to represent like newline (\n) or tab (\t). Here, is a list of some of such escape sequence codes −

Escape sequenceMeaning
\\\ character
\' ' character
\"" character
\?? character
\aAlert or bell
\bBackspace
\fForm feed
\nNewline
\rCarriage return
\tHorizontal tab
\vVertical tab
\xhh . . .Hexadecimal number of one or more digits

Following is the example to show few escape sequence characters −

Live Demo using System; namespace EscapeChar { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { Console.WriteLine("Hello\tWorld\n\n"); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Hello World

String Literals

String literals or constants are enclosed in double quotes "" or with @"". A string contains characters that are similar to character literals: plain characters, escape sequences, and universal characters.

You can break a long line into multiple lines using string literals and separating the parts using whitespaces.

Here are some examples of string literals. All the three forms are identical strings.

"hello, dear" "hello, \ dear" "hello, " "d" "ear" @"hello dear"

Defining Constants

Constants are defined using the const keyword. Syntax for defining a constant is −

const <data_type> <constant_name> = value;

The following program demonstrates defining and using a constant in your program −

Live Demo using System; namespace DeclaringConstants { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { const double pi = 3.14159; // constant declaration double r; Console.WriteLine("Enter Radius: "); r = Convert.ToDouble(Console.ReadLine()); double areaCircle = pi * r * r; Console.WriteLine("Radius: {0}, Area: {1}", r, areaCircle); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Enter Radius: 3 Radius: 3, Area: 28.27431

C# - Operators

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. C# has rich set of built-in operators and provides the following type of operators −

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Misc Operators

This tutorial explains the arithmetic, relational, logical, bitwise, assignment, and other operators one by one.

Arithmetic Operators

Following table shows all the arithmetic operators supported by C#. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
+Adds two operandsA + B = 30
-Subtracts second operand from the firstA - B = -10
*Multiplies both operandsA * B = 200
/Divides numerator by de-numeratorB / A = 2
%Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer divisionB % A = 0
++Increment operator increases integer value by oneA++ = 11
--Decrement operator decreases integer value by oneA-- = 9

Relational Operators

Following table shows all the relational operators supported by C#. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then −

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
==Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.(A == B) is not true.
!=Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true.(A != B) is true.
>Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A > B) is not true.
<Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A < B) is true.
>=Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A >= B) is not true.
<=Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A <= B) is true.

Logical Operators

Following table shows all the logical operators supported by C#. Assume variable A holds Boolean value true and variable B holds Boolean value false, then −

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
&&Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero then condition becomes true.(A && B) is false.
||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non zero then condition becomes true.(A || B) is true.
!Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.!(A && B) is true.

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ are as follows −

pqp & qp | qp ^ q
00000
01011
11110
10011

Assume if A = 60; and B = 13; then in the binary format they are as follows −

A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101

-------------------

A&B = 0000 1100

A|B = 0011 1101

A^B = 0011 0001

~A  = 1100 0011

The Bitwise operators supported by C# are listed in the following table. Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13, then −

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
&Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.(A & B) = 12, which is 0000 1100
|Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.(A | B) = 61, which is 0011 1101
^Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.(A ^ B) = 49, which is 0011 0001
~Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits.(~A ) = 61, which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement due to a signed binary number.
<<Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.A << 2 = 240, which is 1111 0000
>>Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.A >> 2 = 15, which is 0000 1111

Assignment Operators

There are following assignment operators supported by C# −

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
=Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operandC = A + B assigns value of A + B into C
+=Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operandC += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operandC -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*=Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operandC *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operandC /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operandC %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<=Left shift AND assignment operatorC <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>=Right shift AND assignment operatorC >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&=Bitwise AND assignment operatorC &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^=bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operatorC ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|=bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operatorC |= 2 is same as C = C | 2

Miscellaneous Operators

There are few other important operators including sizeof, typeof and ? : supported by C#.

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
sizeof()Returns the size of a data type.sizeof(int), returns 4.
typeof()Returns the type of a class.typeof(StreamReader);
&Returns the address of an variable.&a; returns actual address of the variable.
*Pointer to a variable.*a; creates pointer named 'a' to a variable.
? :Conditional ExpressionIf Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y
isDetermines whether an object is of a certain type.If( Ford is Car) // checks if Ford is an object of the Car class.
asCast without raising an exception if the cast fails.Object obj = new StringReader("Hello");

StringReader r = obj as StringReader;

Operator Precedence in C#

Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects evaluation of an expression. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator.

For example x = 7 + 3 * 2; here, x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so the first evaluation takes place for 3*2 and then 7 is added into it.

Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators are evaluated first.

Show Examples

CategoryOperatorAssociativity
Postfix() [] -> . ++ - - Left to right
Unary+ - ! ~ ++ - - (type)* & sizeofRight to left
Multiplicative * / %Left to right
Additive + -Left to right
Shift << >>Left to right
Relational < <= > >=Left to right
Equality == !=Left to right
Bitwise AND&Left to right
Bitwise XOR^Left to right
Bitwise OR|Left to right
Logical AND&&Left to right
Logical OR||Left to right
Conditional?:Right to left
Assignment= += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |=Right to left
Comma,Left to right

C# - Decision Making

Decision making structures requires the programmer to specify one or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be true, and optionally, other statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be false.

Following is the general form of a typical decision making structure found in most of the programming languages −

C# provides following types of decision making statements. Click the following links to check their detail.

Sr.No.Statement & Description
1if statement

An if statement consists of a boolean expression followed by one or more statements.

2if...else statement

An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false.

3nested if statements

You can use one if or else if statement inside another if or else if statement(s).

4switch statement

A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values.

5nested switch statements

You can use one switch statement inside another switch statement(s).

The ? : Operator

We have covered conditional operator ? : in previous chapter which can be used to replace if...else statements. It has the following general form −

Exp1 ? Exp2 : Exp3;

Where Exp1, Exp2, and Exp3 are expressions. Notice the use and placement of the colon.

The value of a ? expression is determined as follows: Exp1 is evaluated. If it is true, then Exp2 is evaluated and becomes the value of the entire ? expression. If Exp1 is false, then Exp3 is evaluated and its value becomes the value of the expression.

C# - Loops

There may be a situation, when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general, the statements are executed sequentially: The first statement in a function is executed first, followed by the second, and so on.

Programming languages provide various control structures that allow for more complicated execution paths.

A loop statement allows us to execute a statement or a group of statements multiple times and following is the general from of a loop statement in most of the programming languages −

C# provides following types of loop to handle looping requirements. Click the following links to check their detail.

Sr.No.Loop Type & Description
1while loop

It repeats a statement or a group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body.

2for loop

It executes a sequence of statements multiple times and abbreviates the code that manages the loop variable.

3do...while loop

It is similar to a while statement, except that it tests the condition at the end of the loop body

4nested loops

You can use one or more loop inside any another while, for or do..while loop.

Loop Control Statements

Loop control statements change execution from its normal sequence. When execution leaves a scope, all automatic objects that were created in that scope are destroyed.

C# provides the following control statements. Click the following links to check their details.

Sr.No.Control Statement & Description
1break statement

Terminates the loop or switch statement and transfers execution to the statement immediately following the loop or switch.

2continue statement

Causes the loop to skip the remainder of its body and immediately retest its condition prior to reiterating.

Infinite Loop

A loop becomes infinite loop if a condition never becomes false. The for loop is traditionally used for this purpose. Since none of the three expressions that form the for loop are required, you can make an endless loop by leaving the conditional expression empty.

Example

using System; namespace Loops { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { for (; ; ) { Console.WriteLine("Hey! I am Trapped"); } } } }

When the conditional expression is absent, it is assumed to be true. You may have an initialization and increment expression, but programmers more commonly use the for(;;) construct to signify an infinite loop.

C# - Encapsulation

Encapsulation is defined 'as the process of enclosing one or more items within a physical or logical package'. Encapsulation, in object oriented programming methodology, prevents access to implementation details.

Abstraction and encapsulation are related features in object oriented programming. Abstraction allows making relevant information visible and encapsulation enables a programmer to implement the desired level of abstraction.

Encapsulation is implemented by using access specifiers. An access specifier defines the scope and visibility of a class member. C# supports the following access specifiers −

  • Public
  • Private
  • Protected
  • Internal
  • Protected internal

Public Access Specifier

Public access specifier allows a class to expose its member variables and member functions to other functions and objects. Any public member can be accessed from outside the class.

The following example illustrates this −

Live Demo using System; namespace RectangleApplication { class Rectangle { //member variables public double length; public double width; public double GetArea() { return length * width; } public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Length: {0}", length); Console.WriteLine("Width: {0}", width); Console.WriteLine("Area: {0}", GetArea()); } }//end class Rectangle class ExecuteRectangle { static void Main(string[] args) { Rectangle r = new Rectangle(); r.length = 4.5; r.width = 3.5; r.Display(); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Length: 4.5 Width: 3.5 Area: 15.75

In the preceding example, the member variables length and width are declared public, so they can be accessed from the function Main() using an instance of the Rectangle class, named r.

The member function Display() and GetArea() can also access these variables directly without using any instance of the class.

The member functions Display() is also declared public, so it can also be accessed from Main() using an instance of the Rectangle class, named r.

Private Access Specifier

Private access specifier allows a class to hide its member variables and member functions from other functions and objects. Only functions of the same class can access its private members. Even an instance of a class cannot access its private members.

The following example illustrates this −

Live Demo using System; namespace RectangleApplication { class Rectangle { //member variables private double length; private double width; public void Acceptdetails() { Console.WriteLine("Enter Length: "); length = Convert.ToDouble(Console.ReadLine()); Console.WriteLine("Enter Width: "); width = Convert.ToDouble(Console.ReadLine()); } public double GetArea() { return length * width; } public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Length: {0}", length); Console.WriteLine("Width: {0}", width); Console.WriteLine("Area: {0}", GetArea()); } }//end class Rectangle class ExecuteRectangle { static void Main(string[] args) { Rectangle r = new Rectangle(); r.Acceptdetails(); r.Display(); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Enter Length: 4.4 Enter Width: 3.3 Length: 4.4 Width: 3.3 Area: 14.52

In the preceding example, the member variables length and width are declared private, so they cannot be accessed from the function Main(). The member functions AcceptDetails() and Display() can access these variables. Since the member functions AcceptDetails() and Display() are declared public, they can be accessed from Main() using an instance of the Rectangle class, named r.

Protected Access Specifier

Protected access specifier allows a child class to access the member variables and member functions of its base class. This way it helps in implementing inheritance. We will discuss this in more details in the inheritance chapter.

Internal Access Specifier

Internal access specifier allows a class to expose its member variables and member functions to other functions and objects in the current assembly. In other words, any member with internal access specifier can be accessed from any class or method defined within the application in which the member is defined.

The following program illustrates this −

Live Demo using System; namespace RectangleApplication { class Rectangle { //member variables internal double length; internal double width; double GetArea() { return length * width; } public void Display() { Console.WriteLine("Length: {0}", length); Console.WriteLine("Width: {0}", width); Console.WriteLine("Area: {0}", GetArea()); } }//end class Rectangle class ExecuteRectangle { static void Main(string[] args) { Rectangle r = new Rectangle(); r.length = 4.5; r.width = 3.5; r.Display(); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Length: 4.5 Width: 3.5 Area: 15.75

In the preceding example, notice that the member function GetArea() is not declared with any access specifier. Then what would be the default access specifier of a class member if we don't mention any? It is private.

Protected Internal Access Specifier

The protected internal access specifier allows a class to hide its member variables and member functions from other class objects and functions, except a child class within the same application. This is also used while implementing inheritance.

C# - Methods

A method is a group of statements that together perform a task. Every C# program has at least one class with a method named Main.

To use a method, you need to −

  • Define the method
  • Call the method

Defining Methods in C#

When you define a method, you basically declare the elements of its structure. The syntax for defining a method in C# is as follows −

<Access Specifier> <Return Type> <Method Name>(Parameter List) { Method Body }

Following are the various elements of a method −

  • Access Specifier − This determines the visibility of a variable or a method from another class.

  • Return type − A method may return a value. The return type is the data type of the value the method returns. If the method is not returning any values, then the return type is void.

  • Method name − Method name is a unique identifier and it is case sensitive. It cannot be same as any other identifier declared in the class.

  • Parameter list − Enclosed between parentheses, the parameters are used to pass and receive data from a method. The parameter list refers to the type, order, and number of the parameters of a method. Parameters are optional; that is, a method may contain no parameters.

  • Method body − This contains the set of instructions needed to complete the required activity.

Example

Following code snippet shows a function FindMax that takes two integer values and returns the larger of the two. It has public access specifier, so it can be accessed from outside the class using an instance of the class.

class NumberManipulator { public int FindMax(int num1, int num2) { /* local variable declaration */ int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } ... }

Calling Methods in C#

You can call a method using the name of the method. The following example illustrates this −

Live Demo using System; namespace CalculatorApplication { class NumberManipulator { public int FindMax(int num1, int num2) { /* local variable declaration */ int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } static void Main(string[] args) { /* local variable definition */ int a = 100; int b = 200; int ret; NumberManipulator n = new NumberManipulator(); //calling the FindMax method ret = n.FindMax(a, b); Console.WriteLine("Max value is : {0}", ret ); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Max value is : 200

You can also call public method from other classes by using the instance of the class. For example, the method FindMax belongs to the NumberManipulator class, you can call it from another class Test.

Live Demo using System; namespace CalculatorApplication { class NumberManipulator { public int FindMax(int num1, int num2) { /* local variable declaration */ int result; if(num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; return result; } } class Test { static void Main(string[] args) { /* local variable definition */ int a = 100; int b = 200; int ret; NumberManipulator n = new NumberManipulator(); //calling the FindMax method ret = n.FindMax(a, b); Console.WriteLine("Max value is : {0}", ret ); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Max value is : 200

Recursive Method Call

A method can call itself. This is known as recursion. Following is an example that calculates factorial for a given number using a recursive function −

Live Demo using System; namespace CalculatorApplication { class NumberManipulator { public int factorial(int num) { /* local variable declaration */ int result; if (num == 1) { return 1; } else { result = factorial(num - 1) * num; return result; } } static void Main(string[] args) { NumberManipulator n = new NumberManipulator(); //calling the factorial method {0}", n.factorial(6)); Console.WriteLine("Factorial of 7 is : {0}", n.factorial(7)); Console.WriteLine("Factorial of 8 is : {0}", n.factorial(8)); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Factorial of 6 is: 720 Factorial of 7 is: 5040 Factorial of 8 is: 40320

Passing Parameters to a Method

When method with parameters is called, you need to pass the parameters to the method. There are three ways that parameters can be passed to a method −

Sr.No.Mechanism & Description
1Value parameters

This method copies the actual value of an argument into the formal parameter of the function. In this case, changes made to the parameter inside the function have no effect on the argument.

2Reference parameters

This method copies the reference to the memory location of an argument into the formal parameter. This means that changes made to the parameter affect the argument.

3Output parameters

This method helps in returning more than one value.

C# - Nullables

C# provides a special data types, the nullable types, to which you can assign normal range of values as well as null values.

For example, you can store any value from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 or null in a Nullable<Int32> variable. Similarly, you can assign true, false, or null in a Nullable<bool> variable. Syntax for declaring a nullable type is as follows −

< data_type> ? <variable_name> = null;

The following example demonstrates use of nullable data types −

Live Demo using System; namespace CalculatorApplication { class NullablesAtShow { static void Main(string[] args) { int? num1 = null; int? num2 = 45; double? num3 = new double?(); double? num4 = 3.14157; bool? boolval = new bool?(); // display the values Console.WriteLine("Nullables at Show: {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}", num1, num2, num3, num4); Console.WriteLine("A Nullable boolean value: {0}", boolval); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Nullables at Show: , 45, , 3.14157 A Nullable boolean value:

The Null Coalescing Operator (??)

The null coalescing operator is used with the nullable value types and reference types. It is used for converting an operand to the type of another nullable (or not) value type operand, where an implicit conversion is possible.

If the value of the first operand is null, then the operator returns the value of the second operand, otherwise it returns the value of the first operand. The following example explains this −

Live Demo using System; namespace CalculatorApplication { class NullablesAtShow { static void Main(string[] args) { double? num1 = null; double? num2 = 3.14157; double num3; num3 = num1 ?? 5.34; Console.WriteLine(" Value of num3: {0}", num3); num3 = num2 ?? 5.34; Console.WriteLine(" Value of num3: {0}", num3); Console.ReadLine(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Value of num3: 5.34 Value of num3: 3.14157

C# - Arrays

An array stores a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type stored at contiguous memory locations.

Instead of declaring individual variables, such as number0, number1, ..., and number99, you declare one array variable such as numbers and use numbers[0], numbers[1], and ..., numbers[99] to represent individual variables. A specific element in an array is accessed by an index.

All arrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element.

Declaring Arrays

To declare an array in C#, you can use the following syntax −

datatype[] arrayName;

where,

  • datatype is used to specify the type of elements in the array.

  • [ ] specifies the rank of the array. The rank specifies the size of the array.

  • arrayName specifies the name of the array.

For example,

double[] balance;

Initializing an Array

Declaring an array does not initialize the array in the memory. When the array variable is initialized, you can assign values to the array.

Array is a reference type, so you need to use the new keyword to create an instance of the array. For example,

double[] balance = new double[10];

Assigning Values to an Array

You can assign values to individual array elements, by using the index number, like −

double[] balance = new double[10]; balance[0] = 4500.0;

You can assign values to the array at the time of declaration, as shown −

double[] balance = { 2340.0, 4523.69, 3421.0};

You can also create and initialize an array, as shown −

int [] marks = new int[5] { 99, 98, 92, 97, 95};

You may also omit the size of the array, as shown −

int [] marks = new int[] { 99, 98, 92, 97, 95};

You can copy an array variable into another target array variable. In such case, both the target and source point to the same memory location −

int [] marks = new int[] { 99, 98, 92, 97, 95}; int[] score = marks;

When you create an array, C# compiler implicitly initializes each array element to a default value depending on the array type. For example, for an int array all elements are initialized to 0.

Accessing Array Elements

An element is accessed by indexing the array name. This is done by placing the index of the element within square brackets after the name of the array. For example,

double salary = balance[9];

The following example, demonstrates the above-mentioned concepts declaration, assignment, and accessing arrays −

Live Demo using System; namespace ArrayApplication { class MyArray { static void Main(string[] args) { int [] n = new int[10]; /* n is an array of 10 integers */ int i,j; /* initialize elements of array n */ for ( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { n[ i ] = i + 100; } /* output each array element's value */ for (j = 0; j < 10; j++ ) { Console.WriteLine("Element[{0}] = {1}", j, n[j]); } Console.ReadKey(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Element[0] = 100 Element[1] = 101 Element[2] = 102 Element[3] = 103 Element[4] = 104 Element[5] = 105 Element[6] = 106 Element[7] = 107 Element[8] = 108 Element[9] = 109

Using the foreach Loop

In the previous example, we used a for loop for accessing each array element. You can also use a foreach statement to iterate through an array.

Live Demo using System; namespace ArrayApplication { class MyArray { static void Main(string[] args) { int [] n = new int[10]; /* n is an array of 10 integers */ /* initialize elements of array n */ for ( int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { n[i] = i + 100; } /* output each array element's value */ foreach (int j in n ) { int i = j-100; Console.WriteLine("Element[{0}] = {1}", i, j); } Console.ReadKey(); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Element[0] = 100 Element[1] = 101 Element[2] = 102 Element[3] = 103 Element[4] = 104 Element[5] = 105 Element[6] = 106 Element[7] = 107 Element[8] = 108 Element[9] = 109

C# Arrays

There are following few important concepts related to array which should be clear to a C# programmer −

Sr.No.Concept & Description
1Multi-dimensional arrays

C# supports multidimensional arrays. The simplest form of the multidimensional array is the two-dimensional array.

2Jagged arrays

C# supports multidimensional arrays, which are arrays of arrays.

3Passing arrays to functions

You can pass to the function a pointer to an array by specifying the array's name without an index.

4Param arrays

This is used for passing unknown number of parameters to a function.

5The Array Class

Defined in System namespace, it is the base class to all arrays, and provides various properties and methods for working with arrays.

C# - Strings

In C#, you can use strings as array of characters, However, more common practice is to use the string keyword to declare a string variable. The string keyword is an alias for the System.String class.

Creating a String Object

You can create string object using one of the following methods −

  • By assigning a string literal to a String variable

  • By using a String class constructor

  • By using the string concatenation operator (+)

  • By retrieving a property or calling a method that returns a string

  • By calling a formatting method to convert a value or an object to its string representation

The following example demonstrates this −

using System; namespace StringApplication { class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { //from string literal and string concatenation string fname, lname; fname = "Rowan"; lname = "Atkinson"; string fullname = fname + lname; Console.WriteLine("Full Name: {0}", fullname); //by using string constructor { 'H', 'e', 'l', 'l','o' }; string greetings = new string(letters); Console.WriteLine("Greetings: {0}", greetings); //methods returning string { "Hello", "From", "Tutorials", "Point" }; string message = String.Join(" ", sarray); Console.WriteLine("Message: {0}", message); //formatting method to convert a value DateTime waiting = new DateTime(2012, 10, 10, 17, 58, 1); string chat = String.Format("Message sent at {0:t} on {0:D}", waiting); Console.WriteLine("Message: {0}", chat); } } }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Full Name: Rowan Atkinson Greetings: Hello Message: Hello From Tutorials Point Message: Message sent at 5:58 PM on Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Properties of the String Class

The String class has the following two properties −

Sr.No.Property & Description
1

Chars

Gets the Char object at a specified position in the current String object.

2

Length

Gets the number of characters in the current String object.

Methods of the String Class

The String class has numerous methods that help you in working with the string objects. The following table provides some of the most commonly used methods −

Sr.No.Methods & Description
1

public static int Compare(string strA, string strB)

Compares two specified string objects and returns an integer that indicates their relative position in the sort order.

2

public static int Compare(string strA, string strB, bool ignoreCase )

Compares two specified string objects and returns an integer that indicates their relative position in the sort order. However, it ignores case if the Boolean parameter is true.

3

public static string Concat(string str0, string str1)

Concatenates two string objects.

4

public static string Concat(string str0, string str1, string str2)

Concatenates three string objects.

5

public static string Concat(string str0, string str1, string str2, string str3)

Concatenates four string objects.

6

public bool Contains(string value)

Returns a value indicating whether the specified String object occurs within this string.

7

public static string Copy(string str)

Creates a new String object with the same value as the specified string.

8

public void CopyTo(int sourceIndex, char[] destination, int destinationIndex, int count)

Copies a specified number of characters from a specified position of the String object to a specified position in an array of Unicode characters.

9

public bool EndsWith(string value)

Determines whether the end of the string object matches the specified string.

10

public bool Equals(string value)

Determines whether the current String object and the specified String object have the same value.

11

public static bool Equals(string a, string b)

Determines whether two specified String objects have the same value.

12

public static string Format(string format, Object arg0)

Replaces one or more format items in a specified string with the string representation of a specified object.

13

public int IndexOf(char value)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified Unicode character in the current string.

14

public int IndexOf(string value)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified string in this instance.

15

public int IndexOf(char value, int startIndex)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified Unicode character in this string, starting search at the specified character position.

16

public int IndexOf(string value, int startIndex)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of the specified string in this instance, starting search at the specified character position.

17

public int IndexOfAny(char[] anyOf)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence in this instance of any character in a specified array of Unicode characters.

18

public int IndexOfAny(char[] anyOf, int startIndex)

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence in this instance of any character in a specified array of Unicode characters, starting search at the specified character position.

19

public string Insert(int startIndex, string value)

Returns a new string in which a specified string is inserted at a specified index position in the current string object.

20

public static bool IsNullOrEmpty(string value)

Indicates whether the specified string is null or an Empty string.

21

public static string Join(string separator, params string[] value)

Concatenates all the elements of a string array, using the specified separator between each element.

22

public static string Join(string separator, string[] value, int startIndex, int count)

Concatenates the specified elements of a string array, using the specified separator between each element.

23

public int LastIndexOf(char value)

Returns the zero-based index position of the last occurrence of the specified Unicode character within the current string object.

24

public int LastIndexOf(string value)

Returns the zero-based index position of the last occurrence of a specified string within the current string object.

25

public string Remove(int startIndex)

Removes all the characters in the current instance, beginning at a specified position and continuing through the last position, and returns the string.

26

public string Remove(int startIndex, int count)

Removes the specified number of characters in the current string beginning at a specified position and returns the string.

27

public string Replace(char oldChar, char newChar)

Replaces all occurrences of a specified Unicode character in the current string object with the specified Unicode character and returns the new string.

28

public string Replace(string oldValue, string newValue)

Replaces all occurrences of a specified string in the current string object with the specified string and returns the new string.

29

public string[] Split(params char[] separator)

Returns a string array that contains the substrings in the current string object, delimited by elements of a specified Unicode character array.

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