Pogil Answer Keys Ap Biology Essay

Resources for 2013-2014

On-line resources for the text

Unit 5: Cell Reproduction and Heredity

Heredity Wiki

Essential Question

1. How can cells reproduction lead to both perfect copies and copies that increase genetic variation?

2. How does our study of inheritance patterns leads to increased understanding of our traits?

Learning Objectives and Activities

1. Describe the events of the cell cycle and explain how these events are regulated. (Chapter 7)

2. Explain how cells can divide so that exact copies of a cell's genetic information can be distributed to two daughter cells. (Chapter 7)

3. Explain how cells can divide so that copies of a cell's genetic information can be distributed to four daughter cells in a manner that creates genetic variation among those daughter cells. (Chapter 7)

Key Concepts:

Sexual vs. asexual reproduction

binary fission

haploid vs. diploid


kinetochore function

Meiosis, crossing-over, independent assortment, nondisjunction and other meiotic errors

homologous vs. non-homologous chromosomes


cell cycle basics

control of cell cycle


Resources and Activities:

By Friday 2/28 complete the following:

Chapter 7 Cell Cycle and Cell Division PowerPoint Read the PPT and answer all embedded questions.

Text Chapter 7 resources Complete all activities and watch animations.

Flipped classroom:

Bozeman: Cell cycle and cell division

Bozeman: Diploid vs. Haploid

4. Interpret genetic patterns and data in light of Mendelian and Non-Mendelian modes of inheritance. (Chapter 8)

Key Concepts:

Independent assortment


Mendel's experiments

Dominant, recessive, incomplete dominance, codominance, Sex linkage, mitochondrial inheritance

Gene linkage, gene maps, Morgan's experiments

Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, Punnett squares, calculating trihybrid crosses

Chi square analysis of inheritance patterns

Interpret pedigree diagrams

Genomic imprinting

Resources and Activities:

By Friday March 7, complete the following:

Chapter 8 Inheritance PowerPoint Read the PPT and answer all embedded questions

Text Chapter 8 resources Complete all activities and watch animations.

Inheritance problems

More Inheritance problems

Chi Squared Resource

Pedigree problems

Fruit Fly lab bench

Flipped Classroom:

Bozeman: Mendelian Genetics

Bozeman: Non-Mendelian Genetics

Trihybrid cross explanation (video)

Gene Linkage video

Bozeman: Genetic Probability

Bozeman: Chi Square Test

Chapter 7 and 8 quiz (only multiple choice questions) will be given on March 10

Mid year study guide

Unit 4: Plant Growth and Physiology

Plant defenses article

How plants secretly talk to each other

Bean Bonsai Project

Transpiration Lab Bench Activity

Plants in the Environment (chap 28) PowerPoint

Plant Nutrition (chap 25) PowerPoint

Chapter 24 Plant Structure and Growth PowerPoint

Chapter 21 Evolution of Flowering Plants PowerPoint

Chapter 26 Plant Growth and Development

Chapter 27 Reproduction of Flowering Plants PowerPoint

Flipped Classroom - Bozeman Videos

Plant and Animal Defense]

Transpiration Lab

Plants Intro

Plant Structure

Plant nutrition and transport

Plant Control


Learning Objectives

1. Analyze phylogenetic trees and discuss the evolution of plants based on adaptations to the environment and reproductive pattern (chapter 21)

Key Concepts:

Phylogenetic tree of Plantae

Phylogenetic tree of Land Plants

Adaptations to life on land (cuticle, true organs, vascular system)

Life cycles/alternation of generation of (general pattern, mosses, ferns, angiosperms)

Reproduction in angiosperms

Endosymbiosis produced the first photosynthetic eukaryotes

2. Describe plant structures and relate the structure to its function (chapter 24)

Key Concepts:

Plant cell structure

Plasmodesmata and communication

Apical/Basal Orientation of plants

Root structure and function for nutrient and water absorption

Stem structure and function for nutrient and water transport

Leaf structure and function for photosynthesis and transpiration

Primary and secondary growth

Domestication has altered plant form

3. Explain how plant structure provides a mean for transport throughout the plant and the regulation of that transport to enable plant homeostasis (chapter 25)

Key Concepts:


Nutrient acquisition through ion exchange

Interactions between plant root and microorganisms

Carnivorous plants

Water Potential

Role of cell membranes and permeability in water transport (aquaporins, proton pumps, Casparian strip, apoplast, symplast)

Xylem structure and function

Phloem structure and function

Pressure flow (source and sink)

Transpiration process and control

transpiration - cohesion - tension theory

pressure flow

4. Explain adaptations by which plants interact with their environment while maintaining proper growth patterns (chapter 26 and 27.2)

Key Concepts

Timing and coordination of plant development

Gibberelins - seed germination


Ethylene - fruit ripening (w/feedback loop)

diversity of plant hormones and their effects

hormones cause change from vegetative to reproductive state (CH 27.2)

Phytochromes and plant response to light

Thigmotropism, phototropism, gravitropism

Circadian rhythms

Photoperiodism (CH 27.2)

5. Explain adaptations by which plants interact with their environment while maintaining homeostasis (chapter 28)

Key Concepts

Plant defenses against pathogens (barriers, induced responses, hypersensitive responses)

Plant immune responses (chemical and physical)

Mechanical and chemical defenses against herbivores

Adaptations to environmental stresses: water limitations (w/feedback loop), toxins, water stress and salinity

Unit 3 Animal Physiology

Immune system Webquest

Immune System (chap 31) PowerPoint

Nervous System PowerPoint

Cell Signaling and Animal Hormones PowerPoint

Diffusion, Osmosis, and Water Potential Lab bench

Virtual Daphnia Lab data sheet

Virtual Daphnia labbench

Chapter 29 Environmental Physiology PowerPoint

Flipped Classroom--Bozeman

Elements of a feedback loop

Feedback loops

Homeostasis review

Homeostatic evolution

Homeostatic disruptions

Response to external environments

Q10, the temperature coefficient

Cell membrane

Cell membrane transport

Diffusion and Osmosis AP Lab


Water Potential

Diffusion and osmosis lab

Evolutionary significance of cell communication

Cell communication

Signal transduction pathways

Effects of changes in pathways

Endocrine system

Information exchange

Nervous system

Plant and animal defenses

Immune system

Learning Objectives

1. Analyze data to illustrate how animals use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.(Chapter 29)

Key Concepts

Negative feedback

Feedback inhibition

Positive feedback

Set point


Circadian and other physiological rhythms

2. Use examples and graphical data to explain how animals maintain temperature homeostasis and respond to environmental temperature changes.(Chapter 29)

Key Concepts



Metabolic rate




3. Use examples to explain how animals maintain osmotic homeostasis and respond to environmental osmotic changes. (Chapter 40)

Key concepts

Osmotic balance

Environmental impacts (freshwater, marine, moist, desert)

Nitrogenous waste



Countercurrent exchange

4. Explain how the structure of the cell membrane enables its role in maintaining homeostasis through selective permeability.(Chapter 5)

Key Concepts

Surface area to volume ratio (including calculations)

Selective permeability

Active transport, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion

Importance of polarity


Exocytosis and endocytosis

Water Potential (lab)

5. Relate the action of hormones to the action of second messenger systems within cells.(Chapter 5 and 30)

Key Concepts

Membrane receptor specificity



Second messenger systems (cAMP, IP3-Calcium)

Special, non-animal cases: Fruiting in slime molds and quorum sensing in bacteria

6. For select hormones, describe their control, feedback, target cells and effects.(Chapter 30)

Key concepts

Feedback and thyroid hormones

Biochemistry of thyroid hormones

Action at a distance

Stress Response

Role of Releasing factors and Stimulating hormones

Relationship of hypothalamus and pituitary

Antagonistic hormones and regulation of calcium

Influence of hormones on insect growth and molting

Compare and contrast aldosterone and ADH

7. Use diagrams to explain how neurons carry signals that transmit information.(Chapter 34)

Key Concepts

Nervous system organization

Relate neuron structure to its function

Action Potential and membrane conductance

Integration at the axon hillock

Role of myelination on conduction speed

Synaptic transmission

Reflex arc

Autonomous Nervous System

Organization of the human brain

Evolution of the nervous system

8. Relate the function of our immune system to the concept of self/non-self (Chapter 31)

Key Concepts

Innate defenses in humans and other animals

Clonal selection

Humoral acquired immunity

Cell mediated acquired immunity

Control by Helper T cell

Major histocompatibility complex

Primary vs. Secondary immune responses

Antibody structure and function

Unit 2 Evolution

Evolution of Life PowerPoint

Unity and Diversity of Life Wiki Project

Chapter 18 HW Evolution timeline essay (write like an exam essay)

Evolution AP Bio Learning Objectives

Chapter 15 Mechanisms of Evolution PowerPoint

Chapter 17 Speciation PowerPoint

Chapter 16 Classification and Phylogenies

Species Case Study

Link to BLAST lab pdf

Flipped Classroom: Bozeman videos on evolution:

Natural Selection

Examples of Natural Selection

Genetic Drift

Evidence for Evolution

Essential Characteristics of Life


Speciation and Extinction


Evolution Continues


Origin of Life, Scientific Evidence

Learning objectives:

1. Explain how natural selection can cause changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time.

Analyze and evaluate data, and use models to investigate evolutionary changes in populations.

(Hillis Chapter 15)

Key Concepts

Darwin's influences


Phenotype, Genotype and Allele frequency

Evolutionary fitness and reproductive success

Graphical analysis of allele frequencies

Humans as a selection pressure

Environment as a selection pressure

Sources of variation random, not directed

Important examples: Finches, Antibiotic resistance, moths, mice in southwest

2. Explain how chance and random events can cause changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time.

Analyze and evaluate data, and use models to investigate evolutionary changes in populations.

(Hillis Chapter 15)

Key Concepts

Genetic drift

Gene flow

Genetic bottlenecks

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Hardy-Weinberg problems

3. Demonstrate how the study of evolution is supported by evidence from: (Hillis Chapter 15)



Molecular biology



Morphology (anatomy and physiology)

6. Relate the concept of species to reproductive isolation. (Hillis Chapter 17)

Key Concepts

Definitions of Species

Reproductive isolating mechanisms

Adaptive radiation




Relation to changes in allele frequency

Speciation and Extinction rates

6. Interpret cladograms and phylogenetic trees as graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history (Hillis Chapter 16)

Key concepts

Derived characteristics

Primitive characteristics



Common ancestors

DNA, Protein, Morphological, or fossil based


Compare and contrast characteristics of the domains and of the kingdoms

Use a cladogram to examine major trends in the evolution of:



Plant Phyla

Animal Phyla

7. Discuss, citing supporting scientific evidence, theories about the natural origin and history of life on Earth Hillis Chapter 18

Key Concepts

Early conditions on Earth

Relationship inorganic and organic molecules

Relationship between biochemical monomers and polymers

Organic soup model

RNA world

Geologic, chemical, molecular and genetics evidence

Extinction events

Biochemistry and Cell Biology Test Construction Project

Biochemistry and Cell Biology Test Construction Project (with rubric)


Biochemistry (chap 2 & 3) slides from Hillis text

Cell (chap 4) slides from Hillis text

Cell energy (chap 6 slides from Hillis text

A sample AP style essay question with answer key

A PowerPoint illustrating the types of questions that will be used on the AP Bio Exam

A summary of Bloom's Taxonomy. This (or variations thereof) is used by teachers to construct tests that cover many thinking levels.

A variation on Bloom's Taxonomy

A primer on the types of questions that appear on tests

Tips for designing multiple choice questions

Tips for writing multiple choice questions for higher order thinking

Flipped classroom: This is the Bozeman YouTube Channel. It is a great sources of videos on all things AP Bio. Search out the ones that relate to this material.

Flipped classroom: This is Anderson's (aka Bozeman science) website. You may find it easier to find pertinent videos here.

Unit 1 Ecology

Ecology unit objectives

Objective 3. Use graphical analysis and explain how populations change over time due to characteristics of the species and interactions with other species.

Key Concepts

Population growth curve

Population growth equations



Density dependent limiting factors

Density independent limiting factors

Age structure diagrams

Life strategy data and graphs

Examples of population reduction endangering communities

Population Ecology (chap 43) PowerPoint--revised

On-line resources for text chapter 43

Flipped classroom: Anderson on exponential growth

Flipped classroom: Anderson on logistic growth

Flipped classroom: Anderson on r and K selection

Population corridors text investigation

Objective 4A. Analyze and explain how organisms in a community interact in complex ways to affect the flow of energy and matter. 4B. Use examples to describe how the variation of individuals in a population and the diversity of species in an ecosystem affect the ecosystem’s stability.

Key Concepts

Symbiotic relationships (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, predation)


Keystone species

Examples of population reduction endangering communities

Invasive species

Coloration and camouflage


Chapter 44 Species interactions in ecosystems PowerPoint

Flipped classroom: Anderson on niche

Flipped classroom: Anderson on population interactions

Flipped classroom: Anderson on communities

Objective 1. Use models to explain how populations, communities and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving the exchange of matter and free energy.

Key Concepts

Food webs and chains

Trophic levels

Energy, biomass and population pyramids

Nutrient cycles

Objective 6.Analyze data and use examples to explain how disruptions to ecosystems impact the dynamic homeostasis or balance of the ecosystem.

Key Concepts

Invasive species

Primary succession

Secondary succession

Various forms of pollution

Habitat loss

Water and nutrient availability


Climate change

Chapter 45 Ecological communities PowerPoint

Chapter 46 The global ecosystem PowerPoint

Flipped classroom: Anderson on Ecosystems

Flipped classroom: Anderson on Biotic and Abiotic factors

Flipped classroom: Anderson on succession

Flipped classroom: Anderson on Ecosystem change

Flipped classroom: Anderson on Environmental materials exchange

Flipped classroom: Anderson on Ecosystem dynamics

Objective 5. Explain how organisms within populations and within communities, interact through communication and behaviors.

Key Concepts

Innate behavior


Vocalizations and warning

Altruistic behavior

Chapter 41 Animal Behavior PowerPoint

Flipped classroom: Anderson on Animal Behavior and learning

Other materials:

Environmental geography (chap 42) PowerPoint

2013 Summer AP Bio Summer Reading Assignment

Resources for 2012-2013

When Pigs Fly Case Study Part 1

When Pigs Fly Case Study Part 2

When Pigs Fly Case Study parts 3 and 4

Cell Energetics (chap 6) PowerPoint

Link to Transformation Lab

Link to lab pre-test

Genes, Development, Evolution (chap 14) PowerPoint

Biotechnology (chap 13) PowerPoint

Genomes (chap 12) PowerPoint

Gene Regulation (chap 11) PowerPoint

Protein Synthesis (chap 10) PowerPoint

DNA structure and replication (chap 9) PowerPoint

Molecular Genetics (chaps 9-14) Objectives

Cell Cycle and Heredity (chap 7 & 8) Objectives

Heredity (chap 8) PowerPoint

Cell Cycle (chap 7) PowerPoint

Mid year study guide

Plant Evolution (chap 21) PowerPoint

Plant Body (chap 24) PowerPoint

Plant Nutrition (chap 25) PowerPoint

Plant Growth and Development (chap 26) PowerPoint

Reproduction of Flowering Plants (chap 27) PowerPoint

Plants in the Environment (chap 28) PowerPoint

Bean Bonsai Plant Project

Unity and Diversity of Life Wiki Project

Nervous and Immune Systems PowerPoint

Animal Hormones PowerPoint

Animal Environmental Physiology PowerPoint

Animal Physiology Unit Objectives

Classification and Phylogenetics (chap 16) PowerPoint

Evolution Unit objectives

Evolution (chaps 15-17) PowerPoint

Species Case Study

Data Page

Ecology unit objectives

Population Ecology (chap 43) PowerPoint

Environmental geography (chap 42) PowerPoint

Ecological relationships (chap 44) PowerPoint

Community Ecology (chap 45) PowerPoint

Global Resources (chap 46) PowerPoint

The 2012 AP Bio curriculum guide

The 2012 AP Bio Summer Assignment

Resources for Biochemistry test construction project:

Biochemistry Test Construction Project

AP Biochemistry objectives

A parody poem for your enjoyment:


(with apologies to Rudyard Kipling)

If you can keep your head when all about you

Are losing theirs and blaming it on the teacher;

If you can trust the teacher’s faith in you,

When you are doubting yourself;

If you can work and not be too tired by working,

And do the work because it helps you learn,

And not because it will be graded.

Or because it is required;

If you can dream of success on the test- and not make those dreams your master;

If you can think-and not give up because you don’t know something;

If you can meet hard tests and independent projects with triumph and disaster

And treat those two results just the same;

If you can hear that biology truths are messy and not always true,

That thinking biology is merely facts and terms is a trap for fools,

And the teacher’s job is not to supply truths

But to challenge your mind and help you develop tools;

If you can make a judgment based on all your understandings

And risk it on one answer to an unfamiliar question,

And get it wrong but learn from that

And feel satisfied that you did;

If you can force yourself to take ownership of your learning

To truly learn long after you’ve been accepted into college,

And so not give up when there is nothing in it for you

Except the Will to develop more sophisticated understanding;

If you can talk to your class and help everyone learn,

Or ask questions of wonder or confusion or ‘possiblies’;

If you can recall your learning from last year or last week

And apply it to new situations and grow new synapses;

If you can believe that deeply understanding 70% of the concepts

Is better than knowing 100% of the terms;

If can believe that you own your learning in class and out

And tutors or looking up answers will not help on tests;

Yours is deeper understanding of biology and all that’s in it,

And-which is more-you’ll be an AP Scholar my student!

What we're up to...

Welcome to my AP Bio web site. The material below is from the 2011-2012 school year and I'll be updating it as we implement the new AP Bio curriculum this year. I'll use this page for announcements and thoughts. You can use the links on the side to check out course related materials and some interesting web sites we'll be using throughout the year. Below are links to some assignments and rubrics as well as unit objectives. There are links to many biology resources on the Bio Web page.

I'm very much looking forward to this year. I spent the summer working on developing synthetic biology materials for our use this year. Check out the BioBuilding link to learn more about how I spent my summer.

Older Unit Links

Lab Bench with the AP required labs

Biochemistry (c. 4-5) Power Point

Unit 6 Respiration and Photosynthesis (c. 9-10) Power Point

Unit 6 Metabolism (c. 6) Power Point

A list of animations. Scroll down to find two replication animations as well as ones for protein synthesis etc.

Unit 5 Molecular Genetics (c. 16-21) Power Point

Unit 5: Heredity (c. 14 & 15) Power Point

Unit 5: Cell Reproduction (c. 12 & 13) Power Point

Unit 4.5 Animal Digestion (c. 41) Power Point

Unit 4.4 Senses and muscles (c.49) Power Point

Unit 4.3: Nervous system (c. 48) Power Point

Unit 4.2: Endocrine system and cell signaling (chap 45 & 11) Power Point

Unit 4.1: Immune system (c. 43) Power Point

Unit 3.5 Animal structure and function (c. 40) Power Point

Unit 3.5: Environmental physiology (c. 44) Power Point

Unit 3.5: Animal Circulation and Respiration (c. 42) Power Point

Unit 3: Plant structure and transport (c. 35-38) Power Point

Unit 3: Cell Structure (c.7&8) Power Point

Bioinformatics activity

Unit 2: Evolution Power Point

Unit 2: Evolution Objectives PDF

Unit 1: Ecology Objectives PDF

Unit 1: Ecology slides

Assignments and Rubric Links

Molecular Ecology Project

When pigs fly case study parts 3 and 4 pdf

When pigs fly case study part 2 pdf

When pigs fly case study part 1 pdf

When pigs fly case study part 1 word

Color my world lab ppt

Cell Reproduction wiki period 2

Cell Reproduction wiki period 3

Cell Repro Project

Cell Repro Project rubric

Summer Assignment

Taxonomy Project

Taxonomy Project Rubric PDF

Species Case Study

Lab Report Rubric PDF

Essay Rubric PDF


AP Biology 3A1 Part 2 Genetic Engineering Answer Key for Review Sheet


1. Carries the foreign DNA into a host cell

2. Restriction enzymes

3. Cut DNA at specific sequences

4. Separates things based on size and charge

5. Plasmids

6. Seals the DNA together

7. Makes millions of copies of a piece of DNA

8. Electricity

9.  Makes millions of copies of a piece of DNA

10. towards the negative end

11. towards the positive end

12. small

13. small

14. Every one of the child's bands must come from either the mother or the father, so if there is a band that the mother and father do not have, it cannot be the father.

15. Small fragments go farthest from the well, largest fragments closest to the well

16. size and charge

17. negative because of the phosphate groups

18. it becomes single stranded, the hydrogen bonds between the bases holding the two strands together are broken

19. it is temperature insensitive, it can withstand really high temperatures without denaturing

20. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms; the unique parts of DNA

21. so things can bind to them like probes or primers

22. southern blotting

23. they bind to specific DNA sequences

24. DNA nucleotides - building blocks of DNA:  DNA polymerase (Taq polymerase) - enzyme needed to build DNA:  Primers - to attach to DNA and give polymerase something to build off of

25. the DNA strands denature

26. the primers bind to the exposed strands

27. The Taq polymerase builds DNA

28. make millions and billions of copies of a small piece of DNA

29. Two enzymes used to build recombinant DNA (DNA from 2 places) are restriction enzymes which cut the DNA at specific sites and create sticky ends - these are used on human insulin gene and plasmid and DNA ligase which seals the 2 DNA's together to form one ring of  rDNA: to induce competence (make host cell bacteria pick up plasmic) add CaCl2 and do a cold- hot- cold shock which makes the membrane more permeable and allows bacteria to pick up plasmid

30. Attach an ampicillin resistant gene to the human insulin gene, ampicillin is an antibiotic which kills normal bacteria, the rDNA will have both and if the bacteria pick up the plasmids, they will be able to grow on ampicillin so..... put the bacteria on a plate of agar (growth nutrients) and ampicillin, if it has a plasmid it will survive and grow a colony, if it does not pick up a plasmid, it will die

31. bacteria that eat oil, drought resistance crops, insect resistant crops, etc. 



AP Biology 3A1 Transcription & Translation Answer Key for Review Sheet


  1. Phosphate
  2. Hydrogen
  3. Base
  4. It has the phosphate attached to it
  5. Hydrogen bonds between the bases
  6. S
  7. Yes
  8. RNA polymerase
  9. DNA ligase
  10. DNA polymerase
  11. True
  12. Translation
  13. Transcription
  14. Reverse transcription
  15. RNA nucleotides
  16. 30%
  17. UGC
  18. CGA
  19. Griffith and Avery
  20. Hershey and Chase
  21. Rosalind Franklin
  22. Transcription
  23. Base
  24. Look at your notes, the drawing of transcription
  25. tRNA
  26. G cap and a poly-A tail
  27. Helicase
  28. 300 (100 x 3)
  29. Live R and dead S
  30. Yes; yes; yes; no; yes
  31. Translation
  32. Look at the drawings in your notes
  33. Proteins or enzymes or polypeptide chains
  34. Proteins
  35. Sugar and phosphate
  36. Bases
  37. It cannot start building something, it has to build off of something already there AND it can only build 5’ to 3’
  38. RNA polymerase lays down a primer for DNA polymerase to build off of AND one strand builds towards the replication fork and the other strand builds away from the replication fork
  39. Look at your DNA Replication Worksheet
  40. 5’to 3’
  41. Hydrogen
  42. The RNA nucleotides are removed and replaced with DNA nucleotides
  43. Look at your DNA Replication Worksheet
  44. A-T and C-G
  45. DNA polymerase I- proofreads; DNA polymerase III- builds DNA; Helicase- breaks open the double helix; topoisomerase- keeps the strands open and stable; RNA polymerase (primase)- lays down a RNA primer; DNA ligase- seals the fragments together
  46. mRNA – carries a copy of the genetic code to the ribosome in the cytoplasm; tRNA- carries amino acid to the ribosome; rRNA- makes up the ribosome and is the site of protein synthesis
  47. rRNA and protein
  48. 5’
  49. Small
  50. Amino acid
  51. Codons are 3 base sequences found on mRNA; anticodons are 3 base sequences found on tRNA; they both code for a specific amino acid
  52. Initiator tRNA
  53. A site (A for arrivals)
  54. The tRNA in the P site gives its amino acids to the tRNA in the A site
  55. It breaks off or is released from the ribosome
  56. The ribosomes dissociate or break apart into separate subunits again
  57. Peptide
  58. Translocation
  59. Translation
  60. Look at the picture in your notes
  61. Look at all the pictures you drew on ch 15 worksheet with construction models or look in your notes

AP Biology Answer Key to 2C: Feedback and Homeostasis Review Sheet

1. Promoter, Operator, Structural Genes

2. Bacteria (Prokaryotes)

3. Repressor

4. RNA Polymerase

5. Repressor

6. Enzymes in the metabolic pathway 

7. Look at your notes.

8. Look at your notes.

9. Look at your notes.

10. Off

11. return to a set target point

12. move further away from a set target point, amplify

13. Do they return to a set target point or not?

14. Childbirth: Stimulus is baby's head pushing on cervix, Response is uterus contraction which amplifies the pushing on the cervix which amplifies the contractions, both keep increasing until birth

15. Fruit ripening: ethylene gas causes fruit to ripen which makes it produce more gas which makes it ripen more, both keep increasing until fruit rots

16. pancreas

17. pancreas

18. insulin

19. body cells take up insulin from the blood

20. liver changes excess glucose into glycogen and stores it

21. beta

22. glucagon

23. releases the glucose stored as glycogen

24. insulin

25. ulcers, blindness, death, coma

26. take insulin injections

27. K+ ions move out of guard cells, water follows and moves out of guard cells making them close the stomata

28. sweating, blood vessels dilate

29. seek A/C, go swimming

30. blood vessels constrict, shivering, goosebumps

31. put on a jacket, build a fire

32. photoperiodism

33. Look at your notes.

34. red light

35.when it is Pr, during the night

36. Pfr, active

37. Look at your notes.

38. Look at your notes. 


AP Biology Answer Key for 2A3 & 2B Test Cycles & Cells

1. True

2. Animals

3. Peptidoglycan

4. Chromatin

5. True

6. Nucleus

7. Lysosome

8. Smooth ER

9. chloroplasts

10. mitochondria

11. golgi body

12. yes

13. chloroplasts and mitochondria

14. golgi body

15. false

16. matirx

17. grana

18. both

19. chloroplasts

20. mitochondria

21. golgi body

22. plasma membrane

23. Rough ER

24. nucleus

25. cell wall

26. True

27. True

28. False

29. true

30. cell recognition

31. enzymatic

32. look in your notes

22. no

34. no

35. yes

36. yes

37. yes

38. facilitated transport, active transport

39. diffusion

40. active transport

41. true

42. receptor mediated endocytosis

43. turgor

44. isolate

45. into them

46. glucose will move out, starch will not move, water will move in

47. If there are a lot of producers than there will be more consumers

48. small

49. yes

50. bacteria

51. organic molecules or organic compounds

52. proteins and DNA

53. lysosome

54. Animal cells in hypertonic solution shrink, hypotonic solution grow and explode, isotonic solution stay the same  Plant cells in hypertonic solution the inside shrinks not the cell wall, hypotonic solution the cell wall bulges out but does not explode, isotonic solution stays the same (we drew these in your notes)

55. ligands

56. receptors

57. receptors

58. clathrin

59. vesicles

60. clathrin

61. more stuff

62. We drew a picture in your notes and built a model of this in class.  You will be given the labels and need to match them to the picture.

63. We drew these in your notes.  Water levels in beaker and tube will change.

64. high; low

65. Ex: chloroplasts: Structure (draw one from notes is ok for structure) or oval shaped with stacks of grana surrounded by fluid stroma, function is photosynthesis  Ex: mitochondria: Structure (draw one from notes is ok for structure) or oval shaped with cristae membrane with matrix center, Function is cellular respiration   Ex: Golgi body: structure (draw one from notes is ok for structure) or stacks of flattened membrane with vesicles going in and out, Function: packages and modifies for secretion 

66. Carbon: to build organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins), CO2, plants take in through stomates in leaves, animals eat food, cellular respiration releases CO2    Nitrogen: to build proteins and DNA, N2 gas, plants take in from soil through roots, animals eat, urinate    Phosphorous: to build DNA and ATP, rocks, plants take in from soil through roots, animals eat food (not rocks), decomposition








 AP Biology Answer Key for 2A2 Test  Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration


  1. CO2 + H2O + Sunlight à Glucose + O2
  2. Sun
  3. You make ATP only
  4. NADPH
  5. ATP and NADPH
  6. H2O
  7. Reflect
  8. ATP and NADPH
  9. ATP, NADPH, and O2
  10. Statement to know on review sheet
  11. Calvin (Who can take CO2………. And turn it into candy?)
  12. O2
  13. PGAL or glucose
  14. NADPH
  15. CO2
  16. Blue and Red
  17. Solar energy into chemical bond energy of organic compounds (food)
  18. Light reactions
  19. Thylakoid membranes of the grana
  20. H2O
  21. No
  22. High, low
  23. H2O
  24. When your muscles run out of O2 and you go into anaerobic respiration and produce lactic acid
  25. 36
  26. Glycolysis
  27. Kreb’s cycle
  28. Glycolysis
  29. ETS
  30. Anaerobic
  31. O2
  32. 3
  33. 2
  34. H+
  35. Future energy
  36. Yes
  37. CO2
  38. Membranes (thylakoid – photosynthesis and cristae – cellular respiration)
  39. Chemiosmosis
  40. Glycolysis
  41. Anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
  42. Kreb’s cycle
  43. Photosystems


AP Biology Answer Key to Review Sheet 1A: Evolution


  1. Review your quizzes, packets, and notes.
  2. P= frequency of dominant allele; q= frequency of recessive allele; p2= % of population that is homozygous dominant; q2= % of population that is homozygous recessive; 2pq= % of population that is heterozygous
  3. Reproductive success
  4. Heterozygote advantage
  5. Flow
  6. Founder’s effect
  7. Hardy-Weinberg
  8. Natural selection
  9. Genetic drift
  10. Balanced polymorphism
  11. Gene pool
  12. No
  13. No mutations, no migrations, random reproduction, large population, no natural selection
  14. Bottleneck
  15. No
  16. They remain the same
  17. No
  18. He couldn’t explain where variations come from or how they are passed to offspring
  19. Random
  20. No
  21. When a small group leaves a large group and has a genetic makeup that is drastically different from the original group by random chance alone; Amish community
  22. Elimination of an allele by RANDOM CHANCE; Small
  23. AA: 50% chance of dying of malaria; Aa: Not affected by either; aa: 100% chance of dying of sickle cell anemia
  24. Yes, it is favored in the heterozygote because it gives resistance to malaria which keeps it in the population
  25. No, it is not favored and has no advantage for survival so it will not be preserved





Answer Key to 2E Review Sheet AP Biology


  1. In development to take shape (webbed fingers), prevent cancer cells, prevent virus infected cells from dividing, to balance the # of total cells in the body

  2. Yes

  3. Capases

  4. Keeps it constant

  5. White blood cells

  6. Production of the shape and form of the body and includes pattern formation

  7. Gray crescent, yes

  8. Induction

  9. Dorsal lip

  10. Yes

  11. Endoderm, ectoderm

  12. Activate the genes to become a specific body part

  13. True

  14. Indeterminate

  15. Zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula

  16. Anterior

  17. One

  18. Auxins build up on the dark side and cause more elongation on that side; auxins bind to receptors and start proton pumps, protons are pumped into cell wall making it acidic and weak, ions enter the cell wall, water follows and stretches it

  19. Prevent; prevent

  20. Instinct, fixed action patterns, imprinting

  21. Specific stimulus causes the behavior, successful solution to common problem, innate behavior that saves energy, increases fitness, once started must be completed

  22. Any red belly stimulus causes response, prevents confrontation, defends territory, innate

  23. Simple less complex animals

  24. Negative reinforcement is when an animal does something and the response is undesirable so they don’t do it again, positive reinforcement is when an animal does something and the response is good so they keep doing it

  25. Classical conditioning

  26. Imprinting

  27. Gastrulation

  28. Mitosis

  29. Vegetal

  30. Induction

  31. They divide but do not grow so individual cells get smaller

  32. Ectoderm: skin and nervous system  Mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood  Endoderm: inner lining of digestive tract

  33. Mammals, reptiles, birds,

  34. Fertilization

  35. Gastrulation

  36. Formation of one organ after contact with inducer cells of another part

  37. Competition  for resources and one species will eliminate the other, competitive exclusion

  38. One species will eliminate the other one

  39. Fundamental niche is a fantasy niche where one could survive, realized niched is reality where you are limited to a smaller area because other species are around

  40. Niches

  41. Yes

  42. Auxins on the dark side make those cells elongate more than cells on the light side

  43. On the dark side

  44. Apoptosis will breakdown and recycle materials

  45. No

  46. It will induce the new cells around it to become a specific body part

  47. No

  48. Yes

  49. Must have a piece of the gray crescent in order to develop into a new tadpole

  50. Electrical shock sent over egg, builds a fertilization membrane

  51. The sperm must release a protein that binds to and fits a receptor on the egg

  52. Contains digestive enzymes to get into the egg

  53. Water, temperature

  54. They can stay dormant until environmental conditions are favorable before they start to grow

  55. Deuterostomes form anus first, protostomes form mouth first

  56. It was a safe place for them and they survived so it should also work for their offspring

  57. At night time

  58. Make a person sleepy

  59. If the rats get food, they will keep pressing the lever, if the rats get shocked, they will stop pressing the lever

  60. Amnion; cushions embryo, allantois; stores wastes, chorion; gas exchange, yolk sac; contains food




























Answer Key to 2D Review Sheet


  1. So it will be small enough to pass through the cell membrane of cells

  2. Lysosome

  3. Moist, thin, in contact with transport system, high surface area

  4. 90 to 95%

  5. Mutualism

  6. Lichens, nitrogen fixing bacteria and legumes, microbes in cow guts

  7. Producers turning energy of sun into organic compounds (food)

  8. Energy and biomass are lost as you go up a food chain (10% passed on)

  9. Decreases by 90% only 10% moves on

  10. Loss of energy

  11. Recycle matter

  12. You got this!!

  13. One way

  14. One way

  15. Food vacuole and lysosome

  16. Food vacuole and lysosome

  17. lungs

  18. diffusion through plasma membrane

  19. gills

  20. spiracles and tracheae tubes

  21. skin

  22. still skin oops

  23. nephridia

  24. flame cells

  25. malpighian tubules

  26. contractile vacuoles

  27. kidneys

  28. biotic – living; abiotic – nonliving

  29. they live in water where it is immediately diluted

  30. saves energy by not having to convert it to something else

  31. water

  32. O2

  33. Hemoglobin of red blood cells

  34. Red

  35. Secrete urine and mucus

  36. Abdomen

  37. Uric acid à urea à ammonia

  38. Marine fish water wants to move out of the fish into the water (more stuff); freshwater fish water wants to move into the fish (more stuff)

  39. Marine fish rarely urinate and constantly drink; freshwater fish rarely drink and constantly urinate

  40. Blood vessels dilate, swelling, warmth, redness, pain

  41. Brown tree snakes in Guam, ate all the birds almost to extinction

  42. Review 2, 3, and 4 chambered hearts, and their blood flow, advantages and disadvantages for essay (look at notes and packet)


AP Biology Answer Key for 4A5 & 4A6 Ecology Review Sheet


  1. No; Yes

  2. Competition, one can outcompete and eliminate the other

  3. Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

  4. Recycle matter; decomposers

  5. Each level is a trophic level, (EX: producer, primary consumer, etc.)

  6. Energy is lost every time you move up a level, only 10% passed on

  7. Highest consumer

  8. Highest consumer

  9. Species that exhibit more than expected impact on the ecosystem, anchors of the stability of the ecosystem, if removed, the whole ecosystem collapses

  10. Look at your notes. (S curve)  lag, acceleration, deceleration, levels off at carrying capacity

  11. Starts at deceleration and through carrying capacity

  12. In between acceleration and deceleration

  13. Natural disasters, earthquake, fire, etc.

  14. Bacteria

  15. Organic compounds (food)

  16. Succession

  17. Both increase

  18. Climax community is established but undergoes catastrophic event like fire but doesn’t start over from nothing, seeds and soil still exist and will rebuild to a new climax community

  19. Opportunistic, exponential growth, many offspring, no parental care, population crashes, set up environment for k species (ex: bacteria, insects)

  20. Stable population at carrying capacity, logistic growth, few offspring, extensive parental care

  21. Warning coloration

  22. Look at your notes

  23. Type 1, die of old age  Type 2, die at steady rate at all ages  Type 3, most die in childhood

  24. Look at your notes

  25. Maximum Growth potential under ideal conditions

  26. Maximum number the environment can support

  27. Clumped, uniform, or random

  28. Where an organism lives

  29. The role an organism plays in the environment

  30. Bottom is producers, then going up, primary consumers, secondary consumers, etc.

  31. Exponential growth (J curve)

  32. Global warming: CO2, burning fossil fuels, higher temperatures and sea level rising

  33. Mullerian: all species have the same defense, (Ex: stinging) and they all look alike EX: honey bee and bumble bee    Batesian: One species has the defense but the other species does NOT but because it looks like the one with the defense, it is left alone  EX: monarch and viceroy butterfly










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